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Servicing the latest vehicles and the classics OCP Automotive has the training and equipment to get the job done right. Employing ASE certified Technicians with extensive dealer and manufacture training we get it done right the 1st time and on time. We have an A+ standing with the BBB and are an accredited Business. We have extensive reviews on Google, Yahoo, Yelp and more. We strive for 100% satisfaction and settle for nothing less. Give us a call today and see how automotive repair service should be. 

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How to Drive More Efficiently

Driving More Efficiently
Drive Sensibly
cartoon of carAggressive driving (speeding, rapid acceleration and braking) wastes gas. It can lower your gas mileage by 33 percent at highway speeds and by 5 percent around town. Sensible driving is also safer for you and others, so you may save more than gas money.

Fuel Economy Benefit:


Equivalent Gasoline Savings:


automotive repair
Observe the Speed Limit
Graph showing MPG VS speed MPG decreases rapidly at speeds above 60 mphWhile each vehicle reaches its optimal fuel economy at a different speed (or range of speeds), gas mileage usually decreases rapidly at speeds above 60 mph.
You can assume that each 5 mph you drive over 60 mph is like paying an additional $0.24 per gallon for gas.
Observing the speed limit is also safer.

Fuel Economy Benefit:


Equivalent Gasoline Savings:


automotive repair
Remove Excess Weight
Avoid keeping unnecessary items in your vehicle, especially heavy ones. An extra 100 pounds in your vehicle could reduce your MPG by up to 2%. The reduction is based on the percentage of extra weight relative to the vehicle's weight and affects smaller vehicles more than larger ones.

Fuel Economy Benefit:

1-2%/100 lbs

Equivalent Gasoline Savings:


automotive repair
Avoid Excessive Idling
Idling gets 0 miles per gallon. Cars with larger engines typically waste more gas at idle than do cars with smaller engines.
automotive repair
Use Cruise Control
Using cruise control on the highway helps you maintain a constant speed and, in most cases, will save gas.
automotive repair
Use Overdrive Gears
When you use overdrive gearing, your car's engine speed goes down. This saves gas and reduces engine wear.
automotive repair
Note: Cost savings are based on an assumed fuel price of $2.66/gallon.
Data Sources
Estimates for fuel savings from sensible driving are based on Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Owner Related Fuel Economy Improvements, Arlington, Virginia, 2001.
Estimates for the effect of speed on MPG are based on a study by West, B.H., R.N. McGill, J.W. Hodgson, S.S. Sluder, and D.E. Smith, Development and Verification of Light-Duty Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Values for Traffic Models, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 1999.

What do NASCAR and your tires have in common?
Top NASCAR tire specialist offers tips on how to better take care of your tires
Watching NASCAR pit crews change tires is one of the activities that most race fans take for granted. After all, they change their own tires after 25,000 miles or so, not after 25 laps, right?
Well, the attention to detail that pit crews pay to the tires on their cars is something that most motorists should pick up on, according to Jerold Shires, the tire specialist for the No. 20 Home Depot Toyota driven by Tony Stewart for Joe Gibbs Racing.
Shires, who hails from Waiteville, WV, recently took time out of his busy schedule at Talladega, to share some of his expertise to help consumers get the most from their personal automobiles.
The most important thing that consumers can do to keep their tires happy is to pay attention to the air pressure, Shires said.
“Passenger tires have an air pressure rating, but most of the time it’s a maximum,” he explained. “That rating is for a full load. For our racing tires, we adjust them to make the car handle.”
Shires goes on to say that drivers can do that on their car’s tires as well for better handling, but that consumers should mainly be concerned about load.
“If it says to inflate to at least 32 pounds, you want to run it a couple of pounds under that so when the pressure builds up, it will be right on the rating. If you run it at full inflation, it will wear out the center of your tire.”
Tire pressure is key to maintaining the contact patch, or the amount of rubber that’s actually on the road. Proper tire inflation plays a significant role in fuel mileage as well, and that’s important in the days of $3.50 plus per gallon of gas.
“If you run it low, it’s more of a drag on the tire,” Shires cautioned. “If you keep it at 30 pounds, say, for a tire that’s rated at 32 or 34 pounds maximum load, you’ll be better off. The more you keep the tire up off the road, the less drag you have on it and the better your mileage will be.”
Improper inflation causes the tires to wear out quicker. You see it on the race track, too. Lower inflation means better handling, but it also increases the chances that the tires will be the victim of abuse and fail to perform.
Consumers need to “read their tires” to keep them working well over their useful lives, Shires said.
“The biggest thing to take care of is the air pressure,” Shires reiterated.“If you let your tire get too low, you’re going to wear out the outside of the tire. If you put too much in it, you’ll wear out the center. Watch how your tires are wearing, too. It might be air-pressure-related, but it might also be suspension related. Keep all four tires at the same pressure, unless you have a sports car where the front and back ratings are different.”
By reading the tire—inside, center and outside—you can tell if your air pressure is where it needs to be or if you have a suspension or alignment problem.
“If a tire is wearing on the inside, closest to the hub, it’s an alignment problem 90 percent of the time,” Shires said. “It can also be a tie-rod or other suspension component, which changes the degree of camber and produces tire wear. If it’s air pressure, most of the time it’s worn on the inside and the outside. If you’re at max inflation, it’s the center.”
Finally, consumers need to watch the depth of the tread on the tires. Goodyear Racing Eagles have, Shires said, about 4/32nds of an inch of tread on them when they’re new.
“That doesn’t sound like a lot, but it gets the job done,” Shires emphasized.
Passenger car tires come equipped with wear bars all the way across the tire, and learning to read those is useful. If you’d rather do a quick measurement, Shires said all you need is a cent… a penny that is.
Take the penny and put it in one of the tread grooves, with Abe Lincoln’s head facing down.
“If the tread comes up past the head, you’re still good; if it’s above the head of the penny, definitely get new tires,” Shires stressed.


NASCAR Performance
301 S. College Street
Suite 3900
Charlotte, NC 28202


Used Cars Advantages
Most people hesitate when it comes to purchasing car, the most frequent question that they have being: should I buy a new one or a used one? The choice is theirs but the essential thing is to be aware of both possibilities and their advantages. Those of you who have decided to purchase a used car made a smart choice, because you can get an almost new car without having to suffer the depreciation a new car undergoes. It is a fact that used cars are 20 or even 30 percent cheaper than the new ones and that they will definitely help you save some money.
Used cars present several advantages that are worth taking into consideration. First of all, buying a used car means that you will be able to afford a more luxurious model. Next, you will save a significant amount of money on insurance and finding a near new-car vehicle is not that difficult and bargains are a possibility for those of you who are smart shoppers.
Used cars considered a risk by some people because of the lack of reliability and the expense of repairs. However, these are old issues because nowadays used cars are more reliable than they used too, some of them are still under factory warranty, most carmakers sell certified used cars which have warranties, you can easily find out the history of an used car and the financing rates for such cars have dropped considerably these years.
Used cars purchasing is no longer a risk but a good deal, as long as you know how to bargain and where to shop from. Finding a great deal of a used car can be very rewarding from a financial point of view. However, if you are having doubts regarding the condition of the used vehicle you intend to purchase, we advise you to perform a vehicle check that will reveal any potential problems. Thus, you will know exactly what you are getting and how much you should pay for it.
Used cars are nowadays durable and reliable due to manufacturers and engineers, having almost the same value as a new car. Since new car prices are continuously growing, used cars are becoming more appealing. Used car dealers can also put at your disposal certified used cars, which have gained much popularity and can be found at most car dealers. The most important benefit of certified used cars is the fact that you are purchasing a car that has been checked out carefully and turned out to be in a good condition, thus receiving an extended warranty.

Used car dealers will offer you certified warranty for used cars only if it meets the highest standards set by the manufacturer of the automobile. Furthermore, once you purchase such a car most dealers will let you three days to see if the car is right for you. Other benefits of certified used cars are roadside assistance, lower loan rates, free of charge maintenance together with oil changes and inspections.
Used car dealers consider that the most important benefit of such cars is the long time warranty that you receive which is low cost and will help you save hundreds of dollars. Used car dealers will show you a wide range of models, brands and colors, offering good quality cars, well-maintained and having an impeccable look.
New Car Dealers Tips
Dealersdefinitely know their business and in order to make a good deal for a new car, you must be very well informed. The key to purchasing the car that you desire is doing the research on the vehicle before talking to a dealer. Although it is hard to keep in mind all the information you have gathered, the essential thing is to remember what is most important.

New car dealers have a profit margin somewhere between ten and twenty percent and this margin represents the difference between the price they want you to pay and the invoice price. New cars are quite appealing but they will definitely cost you a little bit more and in case you don’t find something you like in a car lot, you can always order it but this will take time.
New car dealers can be quite intimidating and they can talk you into purchasing something different than your desire or even something far more expensive than what you had in mind, so make sure you stick to your established budget, regardless of what they tell you. Your emotions will definitely cost you money, so it is better not to reveal how excited you are about new cars.
New cars must be chosen taking into account the following things: your lifestyle, the place you live in, your hobbies and last but not least, your income. The most essential thing is to purchase a vehicle that suits your lifestyle and the weather and road conditions. Furthermore, think about what you like doing when you are not home or at work. Don’t forget about remaining within the limits of the budget you have established.
New car dealers will do their best tom help you but they are also going to try to make you pay more. Thus, if the car seems to have a cost-effective price, if you are not paying attention you might end up paying more for the warranty or the other charges. Customers don’t know how much mark up there is on a particular warranty and dealers are aware of that, thus making as much profit as they can. A solution would be purchasing reliable extended warranties from other sources which offer a better price.
New cars alarms can also be over priced, being a great opportunity to make profit, especially when the clients are not familiar with the price of an alarm. New car dealers should be selected carefully, because there is no point in paying more for an alarm whose value is acceptable. Don’t rely on what you are told as your only source of information because doing a little homework before closing a deal will save you some money.
Buyers with information will get the best deals and not researching loans and lease rates before visiting the dealer will cost you precious money. Learn how to calculate your payments and how to be able to tell a good price from a bad one. New cars will have a reasonable price, once you don’t pay for the things you don’t have too such as delivery, promotion, handling, sales charges, etc. however, you’ll have to pay for taxes, registration, licenses and destination charges.

If you are not satisfied with the offer presented by the dealer, you are always free to walk away and look for more convenient deals. You don’t need to feel ashamed of trying to make a good acquisition. This being said, you can go ahead and shop around for the car of your dreams.

Note, the information contained in this guide is for educational purposes only and cannot substitute for the advice of professional mechanic or authorized dealer. Different cars have different requirements; for information specific to your car consult your owner's manual or call your local dealer or better yet call !

Do You Know Why cars break down?
Nothing lasts forever; any car eventually will start having problems. However, while some cars may provide you with few hundred thousands miles of trouble-free driving, others start having problems from the beginning. Why there is such a huge difference?

Sometimes cars start having problems after accidents. Sometimes it may be a factory defect or design flaw. Heavy conditions like, for example, driving only short trips without letting the engine to warm up fully also make the engine life shorter.

Corrosion is another factor - for example, park the car for a few months in place with high humidity and later it will probably have more problems than the vehicle driven all this time on daily basis.
Yet, lack of maintenance is one of the most often reason for a car to break down.

Poorly-maintained engine

Well-maintained engine

Here is a visual example:
Compare these two images: the engine on a top photo hasn't been maintained well. Looks like it the engine oil hasn't been changed for long time. This engine has relatively low mileage and already needs serious and costly repair. The engine on the lower photo has been maintained well. After 175,000 miles (281,000 km) it's still in a very good condition, and needs no repair at all. Can you see the difference?
So, what's most important to keep your engine in a good shape?
- I guess, I won't say something new stating that regular oil changes is most important factor to keep the engine running. If you do it more often than suggested by manufacturer's schedule, that's even better.

- Avoid overheating the engine

- Changing spark plugs, air filter, timing belt and other items from maintenance schedule may save you from costly repairs.

- Fix any small problem right away before it causes serious damage.

How to keep the automatic transmission alive!
How often to change transmission fluid • How to use the overdrive • How not to damage the transmission

Automatic transmission
Automatic transmission cut in half.

The automatic transmission is one of the most complicated and thus one of the less reliable parts of the vehicle. The repair of an automatic transmission is complex and tends to be quite expensive. More than that, automatic transmission problem can make your car unsafe - some transmission defects may cause, for example, that the car can roll with the shifter in Park or drive forward with shifter in Neutral. On the other hand, if taking a good care of, your transmission can last you really long with no significant problems.

You may find some simple tips how to prevent your automatic transmission from damage and keep it in a good shape. It doesn't require too much of your efforts - just periodical checking and regular maintenance.

Tip: Have you looked in your vehicle owner's manual? Try, it's a best source of information on your vehicle maintenance. You will be amazed how many useful info you may find in this book!

What can damage your automatic transmission
Most of the transmission troubles start from overheating. Under heavy load, such as towing a heavy trailer, rocking the vehicle from the snow, having continuous stop and go traffic in hot weather, racing, etc. the transmission overheats. At higher temperatures the transmission fluid burns, losing its lubricating qualities and becomes oxidized leaving deposits all over inside the transmission. Exposed to the heat the rubber seals and gaskets inside the transmission become hardened causing leaks. The metal parts warp and lose their strength. All this, sooner or later, results in transmission failure. For example, I read a story about a persons that burned the transmission when he was spinning the wheels too hard trying to free his shiny Audi from the snow on the next day after he bought it!

However, overheating is not the only reason - sometimes transmission breaks down because of poor design, due to lack of maintenance or after being rebuilt by inexperienced technician. Few other reasons: harsh driving, too low or too high transmission fluid level or wrong transmission fluid type - a person I know added gear oil into the automatic transmission... guess, what happen? - the transmission died after 40 minutes of driving!

How to prevent the transmission from damage
- Regularly check your parking space for leaks. Doesn't matter, is it the engine oil leak, power steering fluid or transmission fluid; if you discover any, get it fixed before it caused something serious.

- Once in a while check the transmission fluid level and condition. Not all cars however have the automatic transmission dipstick, in some cars, for example, in late Volkswagen models, the transmission fluid can only be checked by the dealer. Consult with your owner's manual for details. If the transmission fluid level is too low, there is a leak somewhere that needs to be fixed.

- Change the fluid as often as it said in your owner's manual or when it becomes too dark (rather brown than red) or dirty.
Also, keep in mind that an automatic transmission can not be drained completely - there is always some transmission fluid left inside the transmission (the torque converter, in the valve body, etc.) which means you only can change about %60 of the fluid at once. This is one more reason to change it more often.

- Use only the same type of the transmission fluid as specified in the owner's manual or on the dipstick. Some vehicles (e.g Dodge Caravan) are very sensitive to fluid type

- Never shift to the Reverse or Parking until the car comes to a complete stop.

- Never shift from the Parking mode when engine rpm is higher than normal idle.

- Always hold a brakes down when shifting from Parking.

- The automatic transmission can be damaged if towing with the drive wheels on the road. Always use a dolly or place powered wheels on the towing platform (if the vehicle is front wheel drive - tow it from the front leaving rear wheels on the road.

How to use overdrive

Generally speaking, overdrive (O/D) is the highest gear in the transmission. On most cars the automatic transmission has 3 speeds and Overdrive (forth speed). Overdrive allows the engine to have less rpm with higher speed in order to have better fuel efficiency. When you switch it on, you allow the transmission to shift into overdrive mode after the certain speed is reached (usually 30 - 40 mph depending on the load). When it's off, you limit transmission shifting by third speed.

In normal driving condition the overdrive should be always on.
You may need to switch it off when driving in mountainous area or towing a trailer.
[The automatic transmission automatically shifts from OD to the 3-th gear when it feel more load. When it feels less load it shifts back to the O/D, but under certain conditions, e.g: driving uphill or towing a trailer, the transmission can not decide to stay in OD or to shift into 3-th speed and it starts to shift back and forth. That's the time you may switch it off and help the transmission to decide.] .

You also may need to switch it off when you want to slowdown using the engine braking, for example, driving downhill. [For more details, check your owner's manual]

Servicing your transmission
I'd recommend to go for a service to your car make dealer - they have original parts, they know exactly what type of the fluid to use and their technicians are highly trained to service particular vehicle model. Even if you go to the independent garage, always ask to use original parts - sometimes, the after-market parts are not of as good quality as original.

When it's time to go to the transmission shop
If you experience any problems with your transmission such as leaks, noises, problems with shifting, etc. - don't wait until the problem will become worse and car will finally stop somewhere on a highway, visit your trusted local transmission shop. Automatic transmission problems never disappear by themselves. Also, when going for the repair, try to explain to service person more detailed - what exactly problem you experience, when it happens, what does it look like. It will be easier for them to repair the transmission. Before going to the transmission shop for the repair ask them about the warranty - the longer warranty they will give you, the better will be the repair.

An auto mechanic (or motor mechanic in Australian English) is a mechanic who specialises in automobile maintenance, repair, and sometimes modification. An automobile repair shop (also known as a garage) is a place where automobiles are repaired by auto mechanics. A mechanic may be knowledgeable in working on all parts of a variety of car makes or may specialize either in a specific area or in a specific make of car. In repairing cars, their main role is to diagnose the problem accurately and quickly. They often have to quote prices for their customers before commencing work or after partial disassembly for inspection. The mechanic uses both electronic means of gathering data as well as their hands, ears, eyes and nose. Their job may involve the repair of a specific part or the replacement of one or more parts as assemblies.Basic vehicle maintenance is a fundamental part of a mechanic's work in some countries, while in others they are only consulted when a vehicle is already showing signs of malfunction. Preventative maintenance is also a fundamental part of a mechanic's job, but this is not possible in the case of vehicles that are not regularly maintained by a mechanic. One misunderstood aspect of preventative maintenance is scheduled replacement of various parts, which occurs before failure to avoid far more expensive damage. Because this means that parts are replaced before any problem is observed, many vehicle owners will not understand why the expense is necessary.With the rapid advancement in technology, the mechanic's job has evolved from mechanical to electronic technology. Because vehicles today posses complex computer and electronic systems, mechanics need to have a broader base of knowledge than in the past. Lately, the term "auto mechanic" is being used less and less frequently and is being replaced by the euphemistic title “automotive service technician”. Fading quickly is the day of the 'shade tree mechanic', who needed little knowledge of today's computerized systems. Due to the increasingly labyrinthine nature of the technology that is now incorporated into automobiles, most automobile dealerships now provide sophisticated diagnostic computers to each technician, without which they would be unable to diagnose or repair a multitude of common failures.Education
In the United States, several programs and schools that offer training for those interested in pursuing competencies as an automotive mechanic or as an auto technician already exist. A few of the aspects usually taught those studying for this career are: powertrain repair and diagnosis, emissions, and suspension. Most mechanics are ASE certified, which is a standardized method of testing skill level. The National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF) is responsible for evaluating technician training programs against standards developed by the automotive industry and recommend qualifying programs for certification. NATEF certifies programs in four different categories: automotive, auto body, trucks (diesel technology) and alternative fuels. Automotive Youth Educational Systems (AYES) is a non-profit partnership of automotive manufacturers, dealers, and high schools/tech prep schools that aims to encourage young people to consider careers in retail automotive service, and prepare them for entry-level career positions or advanced studies in automotive technology. The technology used in automobiles changes very rapidly and the mechanic must be prepared to learn these new technologies and systems. The auto mechanic has a physically demanding job, often exposed to temperature extremes and well as lifting heavy objects and staying in uncomfortable positions for extended periods as well as exposure to gasoline, solvents and other toxic chemicals.
A vehicle breakdown is the mechanical failure of a motor vehicle in such a way that the underlying problem prevents the vehicle from being operated at all, or impedes the vehicle's operation so much, that it is very difficult, nearly impossible, or else dangerous to operate. Vehicle breakdowns can occur for a large number of reasons. Depending on the nature of the problem, the vehicle may or may not need to be towed to an automobile repair shop.Total breakdown
A total breakdown is when the vehicle becomes totally immobile and cannot be driven even a short distance to reach a repair shop, thereby necessitating a tow. This can occur for a variety of reasons, including complete engine failure, or a dead starter or battery, though a dead battery may be able to be temporarily resolved with a jump start. When a total breakdown occurs, the motorist may be able to have the service paid for by a roadside assistance plan. This may be available through an organization like AAA, the vehicle's manufacturer, the vehicle insurance policy, or in some cases, another service the driver subscribes to, such as a mobile phone carrier.

Partial breakdown
In a partial breakdown, the vehicle may still be operable, but its operation may become more limited or more dangerous, or else its continued operation may contribute to further damage to the vehicle. Often, when this occurs, it may be possible to drive the vehicle to a garage, thereby avoiding a tow. Some common causes of a partial breakdown include overheating, brake failure, or frequent stalling. With other problems, the driver may be able to operate the vehicle seemingly normally for some time, but the vehicle will need an eventual repair. These include grinding brakes, rough idle (often caused by the need for a tune-up), or poor shock absorption. Many vehicle owners with personal economic difficulty or a busy schedule may wait longer than they should to get necessary repairs made to their vehicles, thereby increasing damage or else causing more danger.
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle.[1] Common power sources include: * On-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source (internal combustion engine or fuel cell) * Air and internal combustion engines * Human powered bicycle with electric motor or gas engine assist * Human-powered or sail boat with electric power The term most commonly refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which include internal combustion engines and electric motors.Environmental issues
The hybrid vehicle typically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), resulting in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are primarily achieved by four elements of a typical hybrid design: 1. recapturing energy normally wasted during braking etc.; 2. having significant battery storage capacity to store and reuse recaptured energy; 3. shutting down the gasoline or diesel engine during traffic stops or while coasting or other idle periods; 4. relying on both the gasoline (or diesel engine) and the electric motors for peak power needs resulting in a smaller gasoline or diesel engine sized more for average usage rather than peak power usage. These features make a hybrid vehicle particularly efficient for city traffic where there are frequent stops, coasting and idling periods. In addition noise emissions are reduced, particularly at idling and low operating speeds,[2] in comparison to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. For continuous high speed highway use these features are much less useful in reducing emissions.

Hybrid types by engines

Hybrid-electric petroleum vehicles

When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These encompass such vehicles as the AHS2 (Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, and Saturn Vue), Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Mercury Mariner Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines (generally gasoline or Diesel engines, powered by a variety of fuels) and electric batteries to power electric motors. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which offer varying advantages and disadvantages.

Continuously Recharged Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
Given suitable infrastructure, permissions and vehicles BEVs can be recharged while the user drives. The BEV establishes contact with an electrified rail, plate or overhead wires on the highway via an attached conducting wheel or other similar mechanism (see Conduit current collection). The BEV's batteries are recharged by this process - on the highway - and can then be used normally on other roads until the battery is discharged. This provides the advantage, in principle, of virtually unrestricted highway range as long as you stay where you have BEV infrastructure access. Since many destinations are within 100 km of a major highway, this may reduce the need for expensive battery systems. Unfortunately private use of the existing electrical system is nearly universally prohibited. The technology for such electrical infrastructure is old and, unfortunately outside of some cities, is not widely distributed. Updating the required electrical and infrastructure costs can be funded, in principle, by toll revenue, gasoline or other taxes. Hybrid fuel (dual mode)
In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy input types ("fuels") using the same tank and engine to be hybrids, although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use correctly the terms, these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles: * Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, although as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced. * Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels (petroleum and biofuels) in one tank — typically gasoline and bioethanol or biobutanol, though diesel-biodiesel vehicles would also qualify. Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from each other and cannot be used in the same tanks, so it would be impossible to build an (LPG-NG) flexible fuel system. * Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into bio-diesel. * Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included.

Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (PHEV)
The latest wrinkle in the rapidly evolving hybrid technology is the plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles--PHEV. In this gasoline electrical hybrid its battery pack is upgraded with a larger capacity battery pack (usually Li-ion) that is recharged by both a battery charger hooked into the electrical grid and the gasoline engine only if required. The car runs on battery power only for the first 10 to 60 miles [16-100 km] with the gasoline engine available for faster acceleration etc. After the battery is nearly fully discharged the car reverts to the gasoline engine to recharge the battery and/or return the car to the charging station. This may get around the fundamental obstacle that has killed nearly all pure electric cars--the typical battery pack can carry about as much energy as 1-2 gallons of gas. Fuel costs (ignoring conversion costs), in principle, may be as low as 5 cents/mile. Its not clear yet whether converting an existing hybrid car will ever pay for itself in fuel savings--yet. The biggest problem is finding a good, cheap high energy battery pack--the same problem that has plagued the pure electrical car. If everyone plugged into the utility grid to charge up their car this would seem to be merely displacing the gasoline/diesel combustion problem to the typical coal powered electrical generating plant. But, if cars were recharged late at night this would allow the base load of the electrical system to be more efficient with a much more even base load and electrical power can also be generated by clean nuclear, wind, hydro, tide etc, power. Since most travel is about 30 miles/day this may be the cleanest personal transportation system presently available. There are a "cottage" conversion industry, several large auto industry groups (GM, Toyota, Mercedes etc.) and "serious" studies by the Department of Energy investigating this system. There are no large car maker's cars for sale--yet (late 2007). The typical "cottage" industry car "converted" is a Toyota Prius (at $5k-$40k) since it is a full hybrid with enough power in its electrical system to maintain typical city speeds. AFS Trinity Power's Extreme Hybrid(TM) demonstrator (built by Ricardo Plc) was recently unveiled at the North American International Auto Show.
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. Invented in 1892 by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, it was based on the hot bulb engine design and patented on February 23, 1893. A diesel engine uses compression ignition, a process by which fuel is injected after the air is compressed in the combustion chamber causing the fuel to self ignite. By contrast, a gasoline engine utilizes the Otto cycle, in which fuel and air are mixed before entering the combustion chamber and then ignited by a spark plug.Patent controversy
While Rudolf Diesel is credited with the invention the diesel engine, Herbert Akroyd Stuart and Charles Richard Binney had already patented a compression ignition engine designed to run on coal dust. The credit for the invention thus hinges on whether compression ignition or oil fuel is considered the defining property. Diesel's patent (No. 7241) was filed in 1892.[1] However, Herbert Akroyd Stuart and Charles Richard Binney had already obtained a patent (No. 7146) in 1890 entitled: "Improvements in Engines Operated by the Explosion of Mixtures of Combustible Vapour or Gas and Air" which described the world's first compression-ignition engine.[2] Akroyd-Stuart constructed the first compression-ignition oil engine in Bletchley, England in 1891 and leased the rights to Richard Hornsby & Sons, who by July 1892, five years before Diesel's prototype, had a diesel engine working for Newport Sanitary Authority. By 1896, diesel tractors and locomotives were being built in some quantity in Grantham. Importantly, Diesel's airblast injection system did not become part of subsequent "diesel" engines. From around 1910, manufacturers building diesel engines under patent from MAN began building engines with 'solid' injection systems, where fuel is delivered to the cylinder by a high pressure jerk-pump rather than compressed air. This system was invented by Herbert Akroyd Stuart and used on Ruston-built oil engines. MAN continued to build engines to Diesel's original design into the 1920s. By this time Robert Bosch had developed the spring-loaded fuel injector, which provided greater accuracy than the simple nozzle of earlier systems. All mechanical-injection diesel engines built from the 1920s onwards used some form of jerk-pump and spring-nozzle injection. No engine has been built to Diesel's original design since the 1930s.How diesel engines work
In mechanical terms, the internal construction of a diesel engine is similar to its gasoline counterpart—components such as pistons, connecting rods and a crankshaft are present in both. Like a gasoline engine, a diesel engine may operate on a four-stroke cycle (similar to the gasoline unit's Otto cycle), or a two-stroke cycle, albeit with significant dissimilarity to the gasoline equivalent. In both cases, the principal differences lie in the handling of air and fuel, and the method of ignition. A diesel engine relies upon compression ignition to burn its fuel, instead of the spark plug used in a gasoline engine. If air is compressed to a high degree, its temperature will increase to a point where fuel will burn upon contact. This principle is used in both four-stroke and two-stroke diesel engines to produce power. Unlike a gasoline engine, which draws an air/fuel mixture into the cylinder during the intake stroke, the diesel aspirates air alone. Following intake, the cylinder is sealed and the air charge is highly compressed to heat it to the temperature required for ignition. Whereas a gasoline engine's compression ratio is rarely greater than 11:1 to avoid damaging preignition, a diesel's compression ratio is usually between 16:1 and 25:1. This extremely high level of compression causes the air temperature to increase to 700 to 900 degrees Celsius (1300 to 1650 degrees Fahrenheit). If a piece of steel wire to be heated to that level it would glow cherry red. As the piston approaches top dead center (TDC), fuel oil is injected into the cylinder at high pressure, causing the fuel charge to be atomized. Owing to the high air temperature in the cylinder, ignition instantly occurs, causing a rapid and considerable increase in cylinder temperature and pressure (generating the characteristic Diesel "knock"). The piston is driven downward with great force, pushing on the connecting rod and turning the crankshaft. When the piston nears bottom dead center the spent combustion gases are expelled from the cylinder to prepare for the next cycle. In many cases, the exhaust gases will be used to drive a turbocharger, which will increase the volume of the intake air charge, resulting in cleaner combustion and greater efficiency. The above sequence generally describes how a diesel operates. However, there are striking differences between the four-stroke and two-stroke versions:Four-Stroke
The cycle starts with the intake stroke, which begins when the piston is near top dead center. The intake valve is opened, creating a passage from the exterior of the engine (generally through an air filter assembly), through the intake port in the cylinder head and into the cylinder itself. As the piston moves toward bottom dead center, a partial vacuum develops, causing air to enter the cylinder. In the case of a turbocharged engine, the air is rammed into the cylinder at higher than atmospheric pressure. As the piston passes through bottom dead center, the intake valve closes, sealing the cylinder. The compression stroke begins as the piston passes through bottom dead center and starts upward. Compression will continue until the piston approaches top dead center. The power stroke occurs as the piston reaches top dead center at the end of the compression stroke. At this time, fuel injection occurs, resulting in combustion and the production of useful work. The final stroke is the exhaust stroke, which begins as the piston approaches bottom top dead center following ignition. The exhaust valve in the cylinder head is opened and as the piston starts upward, the spent combustion gases are forced out of the cylinder. Near top dead center the intake valve will start to open before the exhaust valve is fully closed, a condition referred to as valve overlap. Overlap produces a flow of cooling intake air over the exhaust valve, prolonging its life. Following the completion of the exhaust stroke the cycle will begin anew.

Intake begins when the piston is near bottom dead center. Air is admitted to the cylinder through ports in the cylinder wall (there are no intake valves). Since the piston is moving downward at this time, aspiration due to atmospheric pressure isn't possible. Therefore a mechanical blower or hybrid turbocharger (a turbocharger that is mechanically driven from the crankshaft at low engine speeds) is employed to charge the cylinder with air. In the early phase of intake, the air charge is also used to force out any remaining combustion gases from the previous power stroke, a process referred to as scavenging. As the piston passes through bottom dead center, the exhaust valves will be closed and, owing to the pressure generated by the blower or turbocharger, the cylinder will be filled with air. Once the piston starts upward, the air intake ports in the cylinder walls will be covered, sealing the cylinder. At this point, compression will commence. Note that exhaust and intake actually occur in one stroke, the period during which the piston is near the bottom of the cylinder. As the piston rises, compression takes place and near top dead center, fuel injection will occur, resulting in combustion, driving the piston downward. As the piston moves downward in the cylinder it will reach a point where the exhaust valves will be opened to expel the combustion gases. Continued movement of the piston will expose the air intake ports in the cylinder wall, and the cycle will start anew. Note that the cylinder will fire on each revolution, as opposed to the four-stroke engine, in which the cylinder fires on every other revolution. Cold weather and diesels
In cold weather, diesel engines can be difficult to start because the mass of the cylinder block and cylinder head absorb the heat of compression, thus preventing ignition. Spark ignition engines undergo the same problem, though they have the added benefit of a spark plug to help cause ignition. The main reason diesel engines take a long time to warm up in cold weather is the lack of a throttle. Spark ignition engines are throttled, so only the right amount of air comes in at a time. This is less efficient, but spark plugs only work near the stoichiometric, or the proper ratio of air to fuel for complete and most efficient combustion, mixture of fuel and air. Diesel engines accept a cylinder full of air and measure in the right amount of fuel. So each time the intake valve on a diesel opens, a full charge of cold air enters the cylinder. This cools the cylinder back down. The heat gained from each explosion therefore can only cause a gain in temperature that is much, much smaller than it would be in a spark ignition engine.Some engines use small electric heaters called glow plugs inside the cylinder to help ignite fuel when starting. Some even use resistive grid heaters in the intake manifold to warm the inlet air until the engine reaches operating temperature. Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) connected to the utility grid are often used when an engine is turned off for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear. In the past, a wider variety of cold-start methods were used. Some engines, such as Detroit Diesels and Lister-Petter engines, used a system to introduce small amounts of ether into the inlet manifold to start combustion. Sabb marine engines and Field Marshall tractors (amongst others) used slow-burning solid-fuel 'cigarettes' which were fitted into the cylinder head as a primitive glow plug. Lucas developed the 'Thermostart', where an electrical heating element was combined with a small fuel valve. Diesel fuel slowly dripped from the valve onto the hot element and ignited. The flame heated the inlet manifold and when the engine was turned over the flame was drawn into the combustion chamber to start combustion. The most extreme cold-starting system was probably that developed by International Harvester for their WD-40 tractor of the 1930s. This had a 7-litre 4-cylinder engine which ran as a diesel, but was started as a petrol engine. The cylinder head had valves which opened for a portion of the compression stroke to reduce the effective compression ratio, and a magneto produced the spark. An automatic ratchet system automatically disengaged the ignition system and closed the valves once the engine had run for 30 seconds. The operator then switched off the petrol fuel system and opened the throttle on the diesel injection system. Such systems fell out of favour when electrical glow plug systems proved to be the simplest to operate and produce. Direct-injection systems advanced to the extent that cold-starting systems were not needed and then electronic fuel injection systems rendered most cold-start system unnecessary.Diesel fuel is also prone to "waxing" or "gelling" in cold weather, terms for the solidification of diesel oil into a partially crystalline state. The crystals build up in the fuel (especially in fuel filters), eventually starving the engine of fuel and causing it to stop running. Low-output electric heaters in fuel tanks and around fuel lines are used to solve this problem. Also, most engines have a "spill return" system, by which any excess fuel from the injector pump and injectors is returned to the fuel tank. Once the engine has warmed, returning warm fuel prevents waxing in the tank. Fuel technology has improved recently so that with special additives waxing no longer occurs in all but the coldest climates. A vital component of all diesel engines is a mechanical or electronic governor, which limits the speed of the engine by controlling the rate of fuel delivery. Unlike Otto-cycle engines, incoming air is not throttled and a diesel engine without a governor can easily overspeed, resulting in its destruction. Mechanically governed fuel injection systems are driven by the engine's gear train. These systems use a combination of springs and weights to control fuel delivery relative to both load and speed. Modern, electronically controlled diesel engines control fuel delivery and limit the maximum rpm by use of an electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU). The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed signal, as well as other operating parameters such as intake manifold pressure and fuel temperature, from a sensor and controls the amount of fuel and start of injection timing through electric or hydraulic actuators to maximize power and efficiency and minimize emissions. Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is a key to minimizing emissions, and maximizing fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine. The timing is usually measured in units of crank angle of the piston before top dead center (TDC). For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection, or timing, is said to be 10° BTDC. Optimal timing will depend on the engine design as well as its speed and load. Advancing the start of injection (injecting before the piston reaches TDC) results in higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and higher efficiency, but also results in elevated engine noise and increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions due to higher combustion temperatures. On the other hand, delayed start of injection causes incomplete combustion, reduced fuel efficiency and an increase in black exhaust smoke, containing a considerable amount of particulate matter (PM) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC).Advantages and disadvantages versus spark-ignition engines
Power and fuel economy Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power, resulting in lower fuel consumption. A common margin is 40% more miles per gallon for an efficient turbodiesel. For example, the current model Škoda Octavia, using Volkswagen Group engines, has a combined Euro rating of 38 miles per US gallon (6.2 L/100 km) for the 102 bhp (76 kW) petrol engine and 54 mpg (4.4 L/100 km) for the 105 bhp (78 kW) diesel engine. However, such a comparison doesn't take into account that diesel fuel is denser and contains about 15% more energy by volume. Although the calorific value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45.3 MJ/kg (megajoules per kilogram) than gasoline at 45.8 MJ/kg, liquid diesel fuel is significantly denser than liquid gasoline. When this is taken into account, diesel fuel has a higher energy density than petrol; this volumetric measure is the main concern of many people,[attribution needed] as diesel fuel is sold by volume, not weight, and must be transported and stored in tanks of fixed size. Adjusting the numbers to account for the energy density of diesel fuel, one finds the overall energy efficiency of the aforementioned paragraph is still about 20% greater for the diesel version, despite the weight penalty of the diesel engine. When comparing engines of relatively low power for the vehicle's weight (such as the 75 hp VW Golf), the diesel's overall energy efficiency advantage is reduced further but still between 10 and 15 percent.

While higher compression ratio is helpful in raising efficiency, diesel engines are much more economical than gasoline (petrol) engines when at low power and at engine idle. Unlike the petrol engine, diesels lack a butterfly valve (throttle) in the inlet system, which closes at idle. This creates parasitic drag on the incoming air, reducing the efficiency of petrol/gasoline engines at idle. Due to their lower heat losses, diesel engines have a lower risk of gradually overheating if left idling for long periods of time. In many applications, such as marine, agriculture, and railways, diesels are left idling unattended for many hours or sometimes days. These advantages are especially attractive in locomotives (see dieselization). Naturally aspirated diesel engines are heavier than gasoline engines of the same power for two reasons. The first is that it takes a larger displacement diesel engine to produce the same power as a gasoline engine. This is essentially because the diesel must operate at lower engine speeds.[5] Diesel fuel is injected just before ignition, leaving the fuel little time to reach all the oxygen in the cylinder. In the gasoline engine, air and fuel are mixed for the entire compression stroke, ensuring complete mixing even at higher engine speeds. The second reason for the greater weight of a diesel engine is it must be stronger to withstand the higher combustion pressures needed for ignition, and the shock loading from the detonation of the ignition mixture. As a result, the reciprocating mass (the piston and connecting rod), and the resultant forces to accelerate and to decelerate these masses, are substantially higher the heavier, the bigger and the stronger the part, and the laws of diminishing returns of component strength, mass of component and inertia — all come into play to create a balance of offsets, of optimal mean power output, weight and durability.

Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications. A gasoline engine of similar size cannot put out a comparable power increase without extensive alterations because the stock components would not be able to withstand the higher stresses placed upon them. Since a diesel engine is already built to withstand higher levels of stress, it makes an ideal candidate for performance tuning with little expense. However, it should be said that any modification that raises the amount of fuel and air put through a diesel engine will increase its operating temperature which will reduce its life and increase service requirements. These are issues with newer, lighter, high performance diesel engines which aren't "overbuilt" to the degree of older engines and are being pushed to provide greater power in smaller engines. The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine greatly assists in increasing fuel economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air intake speed limit mentioned above for a given engine displacement. Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than gasoline engines, due to the latter's susceptibility to knock, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine. Because the burned gases are expanded further in a diesel engine cylinder, the exhaust gas is cooler, meaning turbochargers require less cooling, and can be more reliable, than on spark-ignition engines. The increased fuel economy of the diesel engine over the gasoline engine means that the diesel produces less carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit distance. Recently, advances in production and changes in the political climate have increased the availability and awareness of biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower net-sum emission of CO2, due to the absorption of CO2 by plants used to produce the fuel.

The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels, characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold. This noise is caused by "piston slap", the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber slamming the cold-contracted piston into the cylinder wall. The tolerances between the piston and cylinder wall are greater at cold temperatures to allow expansion at higher temperatures. A combination of improved mechanical technology (such as two-stage injectors which fire a short "pilot charge" of fuel into the cylinder to warm the combustion chamber before delivering the main fuel charge) and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures) have partially mitigated these problems in the latest generation of common-rail designs. Poor power and narrow torque bands have been helped by the use of turbochargers and intercoolers.Emissions
Diesel engines produce very little carbon monoxide as they burn the fuel in excess air even at full load, at which point the quantity of fuel injected per cycle is still about 50% lean of stoichiometric. However, they can produce black soot (or more specifically diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust, which consists of unburned carbon compounds. This is often caused by worn injectors, which do not atomize the fuel sufficiently, or a faulty engine management system, allowing more fuel to be injected than can be burned completely in the available time. The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit", beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely combusted; as the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric it is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke, so this is only done in specialised applications (such as tractor pulling) where these disadvantages are of little concern. Likewise, when starting from cold, the engine's combustion efficiency is reduced because the cold engine block draws heat out of the cylinder in the compression stroke. The result is that fuel is not combusted fully, resulting in blue/white smoke and lower power outputs until the engine has warmed through. This is especially the case with indirect injection engines, which are less thermally efficient. With electronic injection, the timing and length of the injection sequence can be altered to compensate for this. Older engines with mechanical injection can have manual control to alter the timing, or multi-phase electronically-controlled glow plugs, that stay on for a period after start-up to ensure clean combustion — the plugs are automatically switched to a lower power to prevent them burning out. Particles of the size normally called PM10 (particles of 10 micrometres or smaller) have been implicated in health problems, especially in cities. Some modern diesel engines feature diesel particulate filters, which catch the black soot and when saturated are automatically regenerated by burning the particles. Other problems associated with the exhaust gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides) can be mitigated with further investment and equipment; some diesel cars now have catalytic converters in the exhaust.
Power and torque
For commercial uses requiring towing, load carrying and other tractive tasks, diesel engines tend to have better torque characteristics. Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600 – 2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a truck). This provides smoother control over heavy loads when starting from rest, and, crucially, allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at low speeds than a petrol engine, making them much more economical for these applications. This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometry turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500 – 3000 rpm.

The lack of an electrical ignition system greatly improves the reliability. The high durability of a diesel engine is also due to its overbuilt nature (see above) as well as the diesel's combustion cycle, which creates less-violent changes in pressure when compared to a spark-ignition engine, a benefit that is magnified by the lower rotating speeds in diesels. Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles (400 000 km) or more without a rebuild. Unfortunately, due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is a harder task. More torque is required to push the engine through compression. Either an electrical starter or an air start system is used to start the engine turning. On large engines, pre-lubrication and slow turning of an engine, as well as heating, are required to minimize the amount of engine damage during initial start-up and running. Some smaller military diesels can be started with an explosive cartridge, called a Coffman starter, which provides the extra power required to get the machine turning. In the past, Caterpillar and John Deere used a small gasoline pony motor in their tractors to start the primary diesel motor. The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in ignition and utilized a small clutch and transmission to actually spin up the diesel engine. Even more unusual was an International Harvester design in which the diesel motor had its own carburetor and ignition system, and started on gasoline. Once warmed up, the operator moved two levers to switch the motor to diesel operation, and work could begin. These engines had very complex cylinder heads, with their own gasoline combustion chambers, and in general were vulnerable to expensive damage if special care was not taken (especially in letting the engine cool before turning it off). As mentioned above, diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds than gasoline engines. However, diesel engines tend to have a narrower power band than gasoline engines. Naturally-aspirated diesels tend to lack power and torque at the top of their speed range. This narrow band is a reason why a vehicle such as a truck may have a gearbox with as many as 18 or more gears, to allow the engine's power to be used effectively at all speeds. Turbochargers tend to improve power at high engine speeds, superchargers do the same at lower speeds, and variable geometry turbochargers improve the engine's performance equally (or make the torque curve flatter).

HOW TO BUY A CAR !Used car or new
By purchasing a used car, you can save a lot of money. A new car depreciates quickly in the first few years and after 3 years, it is worth only about 60-70% of the original price. In fact, as soon as you leave the dealership, your new vehicle is suddenly worth $1000-$2000 less. It’s true in general, a new car requires less maintenance in first few years and most of the problems occurred within the original warranty coverage period will be covered by the car manufacturer. Yet, buying a new car does not always mean the buyer will get perfection. A new car may come with problems associated with poor design or manufacturing defects that may have been already repaired during the warranty coverage period if it's a used car. The same is true for all kinds of recalls and service campaigns.

Buying a used car is still a bit of a gamble - there is no guarantee that the car is accident-free, has real mileage, and was properly maintained. There may be some hidden problems like a worn out automatic transmission, or engine problems that may not have been obvious when you test-drove the car. Maintenance costs are higher for a used car and manufacturer's warranty may be already expired. However, used cars are more reliable these days and there are number of ways to reduce the risks associated with used car buying. You can check the used car history records at CARFAX Records Check.

First, you may wish to check if there is any record available, it's free: Free CARFAX Record Check [it shows you how many records available for the VIN number you enter, it's free. If you want to see those records, you need to pay] and then go directly to: Order CARFAX Vehicle History Reports

If the car qualifies, you can buy an extended warranty to protect yourself from unexpected repair costs. You also can opt for a manufacturer-certified used vehicle - many manufacturers now offer late model used cars under Certified Pre-owned programs where they inspect and recondition qualified used cars and often provide an additional warranty coverage with them.

Safety There is no perfectly safe car, but certain models can protect you better in case of a crash.
Some vehicles offer features that may help you to avoid an accident in the first place. You can compare crash test ratings and find other car safety related information online at:

NHTSA - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration website where you can find automobile safety information, auto crash testing, statistics, recalls and more.

SaferCar.gov - crash-test and rollover ratings for specific models by NHTSA

IIHS - the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety website where you can compare frontal offset and side impact crash test results as well as Injury, Collision & Theft Losses and Fatality rates for different cars.
Reliability Reliability is one of the most important factors to consider if you decided to go for a used car. Not all cars are the same. Some models are proven to be very reliable, others are known for constant problems. Since it is a used car, the original warranty coverage is probably over and you want the model that is more reliable. There is a number of resources where you can check reliability ratings of certain models:

MSN Autos - follow the link "Used cars".

J.D. Power and Associates - they offer new and used car ratings.

Consumer Reports - provides excellent data (paid subscription required)

However, be aware, even most reliable model car won't last long if not maintained properly.

Fuel economy With unpredictable gas prices, choosing the more fuel-efficient vehicle will help you to save money at the pump. Do you know that the difference in annual fuel costs between two different vehicles could be as high as $1500 - $2000?
Economical cars pollute less, which is good for the environment. By choosing the more economical vehicle you are helping to fight global warming.
In addition, in some localities, there might be tax incentives for fuel-efficient cars, and penalties for gas guzzlers; you may want to check if any of these will apply in your state or province.
You can compare fuel economy and pollution ratings of different cars following links below:

For US: Fuel Economy

For Canada: The Office of Energy Efficiency.

Cost of insurance The cost of insurance varies a lot depending on the make, year, model and even the color of the car, as well as driver's experience and many other factors. I definitely recommended to get insurance quotes before buying a car. Don't assume your current insurance company gives you the best rate, shop around, check quotes from different companies. Here are some websites where you can receive car insurance quote online:
US Online Auto Insurance quotes:
GEICOhttp://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/image-1217720-10358850.gif - according to their website, GEICO is the fourth-largest private passenger auto insurer in the United States. You can get insurance quote online.

Electric Insurance Companyhttp://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/image-1217720-10290493.gif Check insurance quote online.

21st Century Insurance Companyhttp://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/image-1217720-10292291.gif Online quotes in 15 States: California, Arizona, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Texas, Florida, Georgia, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, Wisconsin and New York.

AIG Auto Insurancehttp://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/image-1217720-10384112.gif no obligation online quote. AIG is the largest underwriters of commercial and industrial insurance in the United States.

Insurance.com - compare auto insurance quotes from different companies. http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/image-1217720-10483819.gif
Considering a car with Diesel engine Cars with a diesel engine consume almost half as much fuel as the same car with a gasoline engine. However, there is a price to pay: Diesel engines are a bit noisier and there always will be that not very pleasant smell from the exhaust. Some Diesel engine vehicles require only synthetic oil which means higher maintenance cost. There are only few passenger cars with Diesel engine currently available in North America: Volkswagen and Mercedes-Benz. However, with constantly improving Diesel technology and growing fuel prices more cars may come.
Four-cylinder or six Four-cylinder engines usually provide better fuel economy, but V6 and V8 engines generally have more power and little more durability. The V6 (or V8) engine will be a good choice if you want to use your car for towing a trailer. For normal city driving, a four-cylinder engine will do the job.
Gas or Hybrid / Electric Car
The advantages of a hybrid or electric vehicle are they don't have a transmission (the most complicated part of a gas engine). Hybrids usually have better gas milage, better acceleration and a smoother ride. Hybrids get better gas milage in the city than on the highway. Many times hybrids and electric vehicles can drive in carpool lanes with just one person in the vehicle. However hybrids cost more money right now than the equivalent gas vehicle. The sheer popular demand of hybrids has allowed Toyota to surpass GM as the largest car company in the world.

In the future, hybrid costs will most likely change after more and more get produced. The hybrid vehicles with the invention of bigger batteries will be able to get easily over 50 to 100 miles. As the battery sizes increase it will make the total electric vehicle more feasable to where one might possibly get 600 miles per charge.
Is it worth to buy a car 'as is'? I wouldn't advice to buy such a car even if the price seems to be very cheap and here is why:
Usually used car like this needs a lot more repairs than it may seem at the first look. Just a fresh example:
A friend of mine bought twelve years old Honda 'as is. It was drivable, but "minor body repair" was needed. It was very cheap though - only $1200. During the safety test more problems were discovered and he had to spend another $600 for the brakes and suspension. To pass emission cost him $350 more for new catalytic converter and tune-up. Body repair added $500 on the top. And after one week of driving another problem came up - no compression in one of the cylinder. Another $700 flew away. Finally the total cost came to almost $4000 (plus new audio system, battery, etc.) and no one knows what and when will be broken next because usually once the car starts having problems, it never ends.
For this money, he could buy much better car in perfect condition certified and emission tested with no hassles and headaches. As a conclusion I'd suggest you to look not for the cheapest car available, but for a decent vehicle for reasonable price.

Aliso Viejo is a city in Orange County, California, United States. As of the 2000 census, Aliso Viejo population was 40,166. Aliso Viejo became Orange County's 34th city on July 1, 2001, and has been the only city in Orange County to incorporate since 2000. It borders the cities of Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Laguna Niguel, and Laguna Woods. Aliso Viejo was originally part of the 22,000 acre Moulton Ranch. The Moulton family took title in the 1890's to land originally granted to Juan Avila by the Mexican government in 1842. In 1976, Mission Viejo Company purchased the last 6,600 acres for a new planned community that is now part of the City of Aliso Viejo. The first residential units were offered in March of 1982 and the first residents arrived in November of the same year. (previous information from The City of Aliso Viejo) Aliso Viejo became Orange County 's 34th city on July 1, 2001. The first planned community in Orange County, it was targeted to middle and upper-middle income homebuyers. Aliso Viejo had only 7,600 residents in 1990. Developers were building homes, condos and apartments so fast that there were waiting lists and lotteries held for singles and couples anxious to be a part of the community. By 2000, the population expanded by 32,000 residents, making it the top city in population growth in Orange County. The zipcodes of Aliso Viejo are: 92653, 92656, 92698


Irvine borders Tustin and is an incorporated city in Orange County, California, United States. It is a planned city, mainly developed by the Irvine Company since the 1960s. Formally incorporated on December 28, 1971, the 69.7 square mile (180.5 km²) city has a population of 202,079 (as of 2007). It has annexed in the past an undeveloped area to the north, and has also annexed the former El Toro Marine Corps Air Station, most of which is to be made into a park called the Orange County Great Park. Currently, Irvine is larger in land area than any other city in Orange County because of its annexation of the southern and eastern unincorporated areas. In June 2007, it was named The Safest City in the United States (Irvine has held the title since 2005)
Irvine is home to the University of California, Irvine (UCI), the Orange County Center of University of Southern California, and the Irvine Campus of Alliant International University, Concordia University, California State University Fullerton, Pepperdine University and Irvine Valley College.

The Irvine Zipcodes are: 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710


Evidence of early campsites and rock shelters in the undeveloped parts of the city puts prehistoric man in the Irvine area at least 12,000 years ago. Irvine was inhabited by the Gabrielino Indians about 2,000 years ago. Gaspar de Portola, a Spanish explorer, came to the area in 1769. This brought on the establishment of forts, missions and herds of cattle. The King of Spain parceled out land for missions and private use. After Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government secularized the missions and assumed control of the lands. It began distributing the land to Mexican citizens who applied for grants. Three large Spanish/Mexican grants made up the land that later became the Irvine Ranch: Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, Rancho San Joaquin and Rancho Lomas de Santiago. In 1864, Jose Sepulveda, owner of Rancho San Joaquin sold 50,000 acres (200 km²) to Benjamin and Thomas Flint, Llewellyn Bixby and James Irvine for $18,000 to resolve debts due to the Great Drought. In 1866, Irvine, Flint and Bixby acquired 47,000-acre (190 km²) Rancho Lomas de Santiago for $7,000. After the Mexican-American war the land of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana fell prey to tangled titles. In 1868, the ranch was divided among four claimants as part of a lawsuit: Flint, Bixby and Irvine. The ranches were devoted to sheep grazing. However, in 1870, tenant farming was permitted.

In 1878, James Irvine acquired his partners' interests for $150,000. His 110,000 acres (450 km²) stretched 23 miles (37 km) from the Pacific Ocean to the Santa Ana River. James Irvine died in 1886. The ranch was inherited by his son, James Irvine, Jr. who incorporated it into The Irvine Company. James, Jr. shifted the ranch operations to field crops, olive and citrus crops. In 1888, the Santa Fe Railroad extended its line to Fallbrook Junction (north of San Diego) and named a station along the way after James Irvine. The town that formed around this station was named Myford, after Irvine's son, because a post office in Calaveras County already bore the family name. The town was later renamed Irvine, however, in 1914.[1] By 1918, 60,000 acres (240 km²) of lima beans were grown on the Irvine Ranch. Two Marine Corps facilities were built on the ranch during World War II and sold to the government. James Irvine, Jr. died in 1947 at the age of 80. His son, Myford, assumed the presidency of The Irvine Company. He began opening small sections of the Irvine Ranch to urban development. Myford died in 1959. The same year, the University of California asked The Irvine Company for 1,000 acres (4 km²) for a new university campus. The Irvine Company gave away the requested land and the State purchased an additional 500 acres (2 km²).William Pereira, the University's consulting architect, and The Irvine Company planners drew up master plans for a city of 50,000 people surrounding the new university. The area would include industrial, residential and recreational areas, commercial centers and greenbelts. The new community was to be named Irvine; the old agricultural town of Irvine, where the railroad station and post office were located, was renamed East Irvine. The villages of Turtle Rock, University Park, Culverdale, the Ranch and Walnut were completed by 1970. On December 28, 1971, the residents of these communities voted to incorporate a substantially larger city than the one envisioned by the Pereira plan. By January 1999, Irvine had a population of 134,000 and a total area of 43 square miles (111 km²).
Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous in the United States. The state of California estimates its population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.

Unlike many other large centers of population in the United States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of identification whereas other places in the country are identified by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.

Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking, kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation. It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with Irvine being the primary business hub.

The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange County is the home of a vast number of major industries and service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest market in America, this highly diversified region has become a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable. Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the mountains and the sea in Orange County.

Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.


Incorporated: March 11, 1889
Legislative Districts:
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd & 74

County Seat: Santa Ana
County Information:
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website: http://www.oc.ca.gov


City of Aliso Viejo, 92653, 92656, 92698
City of Anaheim, 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899
City of Brea, 92821, 92822, 92823
City of Buena Park, 90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624
City of Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628
City of Cypress, 90630
City of Dana Point, 92624, 92629
City of Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728
City of Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838
City of Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846
City of Huntington Beach, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
City of Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710
City of La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633
City of La Palma, 90623
City of Laguna Beach, 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656, 92677, 92698
City of Laguna Hills, 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656
City of Laguna Niguel
, 92607, 92677

City of Laguna Woods, 92653, 92654
City of Lake Forest, 92609, 92630, 92610
City of Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721
City of Mission Viejo, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694
City of Newport Beach, 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663
City of Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869
City of Placentia, 92870, 92871
City of Rancho Santa Margarita, 92688, 92679
City of San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674
City of San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694
City of Santa Ana, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707, 92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799
City of Seal Beach, 90740
City of Stanton, 90680
City of Tustin, 92780, 92781, 92782
City of Villa Park, 92861, 92867
City of Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685
City of Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887


Noteworthy communities Some of the communities that exist within city limits are listed below: * Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach * Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove / Pelican Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park, Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach, Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine * Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach * Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach * Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin * Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove * Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa

Unincorporated communities These communities are outside of the city limits in unincorporated county territory: * Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores * Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin Foothills

Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County, California - northeast * Riverside County, California - east * San Diego County, California - southeast

About our city of Mission Viejo California: Located in South Orange County, Mission Viejo is a planned community that once had cattle grazing on its hillsides. The land was purchased from the O’Neill family nearly half a century ago, and the first homes were built in 1966. By the late 80’s, Mission Viejo became a city, and now houses almost 100,000 residents. Locals enjoy activities at the Mission Viejo Lake, shopping at The Shops at Mission Viejo and the Kaleidoscope Courtyard, and their biggest celebration of the year at the July 4th Street Fair. The community is also proud of their world renowned Nadadores swim team and Saddleback Community College, which offers some of the best courses in the county. The zipcodes of Mission Viejo are: 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694

Mission Viejo neighbors the city of Lake Forest: Lake Forest is a planned community that was once a stagecoach stop between Los Angeles and San Diego. The community then called “El Toro” was in fact formed after WWII with the help of the El Toro Marine Base. Lake Forest became a city in the early 1990’s, and now prides itself on having the first of Orange County’s historical parks by establishing Heritage Hill; the park was created to preserve Lake Forest’s vibrant history. Lake Forest also has a new planned neighborhood, Foothill Ranch offers both wilderness and community. Foothill Ranch is home to The Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park, which consists of trails, rock formations, and streams as well as a rest stop and exhibits. This community is close to shopping, dining and entertainment in South Orange County. Within Lake Forest are the communities of Portola Hills, El Toro and Foothill Ranch. Lake Forest borders Aliso Viejo, Irvine, Mission Viejo, Laguna Hills, Laguna Woods, Laguna Beach and Rancho Santa Margarita. Lake Forest offers fantastic mountain views and quiet living for singles, couples and families in Orange County. Residents enjoy swimming, tennis, basketball, and volleyball at the brand new Concourse Park. The community is just minutes from various shopping centers and marketplaces. The zipcodes of Lake Forest are: 92609, 92630, 92610, 92679.And Mission Viejo neighbors the city of Rancho Santa Margarita: Before it was owned by the O’Neill family, Rancho Santa Margarita was home to Shoshonean Native Americans. RSM is one of the many planned communities in Orange County and is also one of the newest, having become a city in 2000. The community known as “A Small City with the Soul of a Small Village” is the perfect place for families and today nearly 50,000 people call it home. Community activities such as the Fourth of July Celebration and the Summer Concert Series are favorites among residents. Dove Canyon is a gated community in Rancho Santa Margarita. Within Rancho Santa Margarita are the communities of Dove Canyon and Coto De Caza that border the Cleveland National Forest and is best known for its choice golf courses. Rancho Santa Margarita borders Ladera Ranch, San Juan Capistrano, Mission Viejo, San Clemente, Talega, Trabucco Canyon and Laguna Niguel. Residents enjoy the outdoors at the Thomas F. Riley Wilderness Park and the Wagon Wheel Park Bike Trails, as well as a variety of community and family events such as the Boo Bash and Holiday in the Park. The zipcodes of Rancho Santa Margarita are: 92688, 92679.
Secrets of an auto mechanic
By Kevin McDonald
Most of us would not take our car to just any auto mechanic. We want one who is trustworthy and will do the job right -- the first time. Though there are honest mechanics, sometimes finding one is harder than catching a fish without a hook.
Modern automobiles are so complicated that when ordinary Joes and Janes bring their cars in for service or repairs, they have trouble knowing if a mechanic is being truthful or taking them for a ride. Bankrate.com spoke to auto mechanics with more than 20 years of experience to learn what you should be aware of before handing your keys over to a guy with a wrench in his pocket. The simple inspection
The cleanliness of the shop is an indication of the quality of work you can expect. Because mechanics deal with oil and crud all day doesn't mean the shop should look like a pigsty. Today, cars and trucks are much more computerized than their predecessors. So you may want to see if the shop has the latest equipment to properly diagnose and service your car. But that's not all.
"The new technology is a help, but if you're not trained it can cause you to misdiagnose," says our expert, who spoke to us on condition that he remain anonymous.
Be wary of advertisements
Do you remember the old saying, "If it's too good to be true, it usually is"? The newspaper classifieds and mass-mail coupons are commonly stacked with places offering specials to fix brakes, transmissions or any other part. However, don't let your guard down so quickly. The special may not be work your car needs. What's more, the mechanic may be so focused on giving you what the ad specifically says that he may not check other vital components.
Read the owner's manual
Yes, you should read that dust-covered book that's stashed at the bottom of your glove compartment. It explains when to replace most engine parts. Many auto shops and dealers try to sell customers services they may not need. If you don't know when those parts need inspection or replacement, you'll take the bait. Deal with a qualified mechanic
Read the certificates hanging on the wall, and if there aren't any, you should worry. Look for the Automotive Service Excellence Blue Seal, which indicates technicians' competence in areas such as brake work, engine repair and alignment. A shop gets the ASE designation when 75 percent of their technicians are certified in one or more areas of repair work. Having the seal doesn't guarantee that a mechanic is honest, but at least he knows what he's doing.
"I would like to see consumers more aware of the car they're driving," our auto expert says. "Educating yourself is very important."Women beware
Another source who was a mechanic for 24 years adds a special warning to female customers."Mechanics take advantage of women -- that's standard," our source says. "That's because women are more inclined to believe you."Women are especially vulnerable to being sold new parts they don't need replaced. Our second insider says this is the most common questionable practice he saw mechanics pull on customers, both women and men."Sometimes a shop is having a promotion to sell or move car parts," our source explains. "They'll sell you stuff you don't really need. I've seen guys sell tires that way."They use fear, raising safety issues -- especially with female customers."Our source says it's rare to see a customer charged for a part that isn't replaced. However, it is common to be sold parts you don't really need.Most or least
The source says that when a car needs a repair, the customer wants the least amount of work done to fix it, while a mechanic wants to do the maximum. In this case, the mechanic isn't necessarily trying to rip off the customer. He just doesn't want something related to the problem to break a week later and then he has to fix it for free! "It's a genuine disagreement," the source says. "One viewpoint is: 'if it ain't broke, don't fix it.' The other is 'Sometimes doing the most expensive thing is, in the long run, the cheapest thing.'"Mechanics usually win that argument."There's a gap in knowledge," the source says. "The mechanic knows what's going on and the customer usually doesn't. Mechanics have an advantage, and they use it to take advantage of people."Keep in mind that mechanics don't know everything; sometimes they'll replace the wrong part thinking it will fix the problem. When it doesn't, the mechanic has to find the part that's really broken. And guess who pays for the extra parts and time?"In that case, a mechanic will tell a customer, "Look, when I was down there, I saw that the so-and-so was in terrible shape, and it needed to be fixed, too," the source says.Watch the dealer
All cars are not repaired equally, at least at dealerships. When a car is under warranty, the manufacturer sets the fee for the repair, our source explains. This means that mechanics make less money for those jobs than they do for non-warranty jobs. So the car ends up being repaired by the least-experienced mechanic. "Newer mechanics get caught with all the grunt work," the source says.This is why, when you have something on your car fixed under warranty, it might take a few trips to the dealer to get the job done right.Last bit of advice
Use common sense -- and your gut feeling -- when your car needs repair. "Judge for yourself whether the mechanic is telling the truth," the source says. "If in fact you don't believe him and your car can limp home, limp home."However, if you break down somewhere, don't expect mechanics to give you a break. "Basically, you're at their mercy," our source says.


Air bags operate automatically when controlling sensors give the alert, though the presence of these in a car should not give people a false sense of security, which might make them not bother to wear seatbelts. The use of seat and shoulder belts will maximize the effectiveness of air bags.

AWD is designed as an on-road control system and is therefore not the same as Four Wheel Drive (4WD or 4x4). (See also Torque).

Experts say that disc brakes work better in wet driving conditions than drum brakes. (See Drum Brakes).


International Association of Lemon Law Administrators
E-mail: ialla@ialla.net

This organization supports and promotes government agencies that administer motor vehicle warranty and related laws, through the publication of a newsletter, consumer and industry education, and other intergovernmental activities.

Motorist Assurance Program
7101 Wisconsin Ave.
Suite 1200
Bethesda, MD 20814
Fax: 202-318-0378
E-mail: webmaster@motorist.org

MAP accredits those auto repair shops that apply and follow industry developed standards for inspecting vehicles as well as meet other requirements. MAP handles inquiries/disputes between accredited shops and customers and offers information to consumers about how to locate a repair shop how to talk to a technician and how to work successfully with auto repair shops. National Automobile Dealers Association
8400 Westpark Dr.
McLean, VA 22102
Toll free: 1-800-252-6232

NADA is a third-party dispute resolution program administered through the National Automobile Dealers Association. The national office makes referrals to state auto dealer associations. National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE)
101 Blue Seal Dr. SE, Suite 101
Leesburg, VA 20175
Toll free: 1-888-ASE-TEST

ASE is an independent, national nonprofit organization founded in 1972 to help improve the quality of automotive service and repair through the voluntary testing and certification of automotive repair professionals. More than 424,000 ASE-certified technicians work in dealerships, independent repair shops, service stations, auto parts stores, fleets and schools. ASE publishes several consumer publications about auto maintenance and repair. RV Consumer Group
PO Box 520
Quilcene, WA 98376
Toll free: 1-800-405-3325 (Order Desk)
Fax: 360-765-3233
E-mail: rvgroup@rv.org

RV Consumer Group is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the safety of recreational vehicles. This group is not aligned or affiliated with the RV industry. It offers books and memberships to help

Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc.
4200 Wilson Blvd., Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1838
Toll free: 1-800-955-5100
TTY: 703-276-1862
Fax: 703-525-8277
E-mail: info@cbbb.bbb.org

Third-party dispute resolution program for automobile manufacturers. DOT Auto Safety Hotline
Office of Defects Investigation
400 7th St., SW
Washington, DC 20590
Toll free: 1-888-327-4236
TTY: 1-800-424-9153 (Toll free)
Fax: 202-366-7882

Consumers can contact the DOT Auto Safety Hotline to report safety defects in vehicles, tires, and child safety seats. Information is available about air bags, child safety seats, seat belts, and general highway safety. Consumers who experience a safety defect in their vehicle are encouraged to report the defect to the Hotline in addition to the dealer or manufacturer. International Association of Lemon Law Administrators
E-mail: ialla@ialla.net

This organization supports and promotes government agencies that administer motor vehicle warranty and related laws, through the publication of a newsletter, consumer and industry education, and other intergovernmental activities. BBB AUTO LINE
Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc.
4200 Wilson Blvd., Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1838
Toll free: 1-800-955-5100
TTY: 703-276-1862
Fax: 703-525-8277
E-mail: info@cbbb.bbb.org

Third-party dispute resolution program for automobile manufacturers.

DOT Auto Safety Hotline
Office of Defects Investigation
400 7th St., SW
Washington, DC 20590
Toll free: 1-888-327-4236
TTY: 1-800-424-9153 (Toll free)
Fax: 202-366-7882

Consumers can contact the DOT Auto Safety Hotline to report safety defects in vehicles, tires, and child safety seats. Information is available about air bags, child safety seats, seat belts, and general highway safety. Consumers who experience a safety defect in their vehicle are encouraged to report the defect to the Hotline in addition to the dealer or manufacturer.

Auto, Car, Truck, SUV Manufacturer Information:
Customer Relations Departments & Websites

Customer Relations Department
1919 Torrance Blvd. 500-2N-7E
Torrance, CA 90501-2746
Toll free: 1-800-382-2238
Toll free: 1-800-594-8500 (Roadside Assistance)
Fax: 310-783-3535
Alfa Romeo Distributors of North America, Inc.
7453 Brokerage Drive
Orlando, FL 32809
American Honda Motor Co., Inc.
Consumer Affairs Department
1919 Torrance Blvd.
Torrance, CA 90501-2746
Toll free: 1-800-999-1009
Fax: 310-783-3273
American Suzuki Motor Corp.
Customer Relations Department
PO Box 1100
3251 East Imperial Hwy.
Brea, CA 92822-1100
714-572-1490 (Motorcycle/ATV/Marine)
Toll free: 1-800-934-0934 (Automotive)
Fax: 714-524-8499 (Automotive)
Aston Martin
Customer Relations Department
U.S. National Headquarters
One Premier Place
Irvine, CA 92618
Audi of America, Inc.
Client Relations
3499 West Hamlin Rd.
Rochester Hills, MI 48309
Toll free: 1-800-822-2834
Fax: 248-754-6504
BMW of North America, Inc. Corporate Office
Customer Relations
300 Chestnut Ridge Rd.
Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07675
Toll free: 1-800-831-1117
Fax: 201-930-8362
Buick Division General Motors Corp.
Customer Assistance Center
PO Box 33136
Detroit, MI 48232-5136
Toll free: 1-800-521-7300
Toll free: 1-800-252-1112 (Roadside Assistance)
TTY: 1-800-832-8425
Cadillac Motor Car Division
Customer Assistance Center
PO Box 33169
Detroit, MI 48232-5169
Toll free: 1-800-458-8006
TTY: 1-800-833-2622 (Toll free)
Chevrolet Motor Division, General Motors Corp.
Customer Assistance Center
PO Box 33170
Detroit, MI 48232-5170
Toll free: 1-800-222-1020
Toll free: 1-800-243-8872 (Roadside Assistance)
TTY: 1-800-833-2622 (Toll free)
Fax: 313-556-5108
Chrysler LLC
Chrysler Customer Center
PO Box 21-8004
Auburn Hills, MI 48321-8004
Toll free: 1-800-992-1997
Fax: 248-512-8084
Ferrari North America Inc.
Corporate Office
250 Sylvan Ave.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632
Fax: 201-816-2626
E-mail: administrative@ferrariworld.com
www.ferrariworld.comFord Motor Company
Customer Relationship Center
16800 Executive Plaza Dr.
PO Box 6248
Dearborn, MI 48121
Toll free: 1-800-392-3673
TTY: 1-800-232-5952 (Toll Free)
Ford Dispute Settlement Board
PO Box 5120
Southfield, MI 48086-5120
Toll free: 1-800-428-3718
General Motors Corporation
Corporate Affairs/Community Relations
100 Renaissance Center
Detroit, MI 48265
Toll free: 1-800-462-8782
GMC Division, General Motors Corp.
Customer Assistance Center
PO Box 33172
Detroit, MI 48232-5172
Toll free: 1-800-462-8782
Toll free: 1-800-223-7799 (Roadside Assistance)
TTY: 1-800-462-8583
Hyundai Motor America
Consumer Affairs
10550 Talbert Ave.
PO Box 20850
Fountain Valley, CA 92708-0850
Toll free: 1-800-633-5151
E-mail: cmd@hma.service.com
Isuzu Motors America, Inc.
Owner Relations Department
13340 183rd St.
Cerritos, CA 90703
Toll free: 1-800-255-6727
Fax: 562-921-9523

Jaguar Cars
Customer Relationship Center
555 MacArthur Blvd.
Mahwah, NJ 07430-2327
Toll free: 1-800-452-4827
Fax: 201-818-9770
Kia Motors America, Inc.
Consumer Assistance Center
PO Box 52410
Irvine, CA 92619-2410
Toll free: 1-800-333-4KIA
Fax: 949-470-2812
Land Rover
Customer Relationship Center
555 MacArthur Blvd.
Mahwah, NJ 07430
Toll free: 1-800-637-6837
Fax: 201-760-8514
E-mail: asklr@landrover.com
A Division of Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.
Mail Drop L203
19001 South Western Ave.
Torrance, CA 90509-2732
Toll free: 1-800-25-LEXUS
Fax: 310-468-2992
Mazda North American Operations
Customer Assistance Center
PO Box 19734
Irvine, CA 92623-9734
Toll free: 1-800-222-5500
Fax: 949-727-6703
Mercedes Benz USA, Inc.
Customer Assistance Center
3 Paragon Dr.
Montvale, NJ 07645
Toll free: 1-800-367-6372
Fax: 201-476-6213
Mitsubishi Motors North America, Inc.
Customer Relations
PO Box 6400
Cypress, CA 90630
Toll free: 1-888-648-7820
Nissan North America, Inc.
Consumer Affairs Group
PO Box 685003
Franklin, TN 37068
Toll free: 1-800-647-7261
Fax: 310-771-2025
Oldsmobile Division General Motors Corp.
Customer Assistance Network
PO Box 33171
Detroit, MI 48232-5171
Toll free: 1-800-442-6537
Toll free: 1-800-442-6537 (Roadside Assistance)
TTY: 1-800-833-9935 (Toll free)
Peugeot Motors of America, Inc.
Consumer Relations
Overlook at Great Notch
150 Clove Rd.
Little Falls, NJ 07424
Fax: 973-812-2148
E-mail: peugeot2@bellatlantic.net
Pontiac Division, General Motors Corp.
Customer Assistance Center
PO Box 33172
Detroit, MI 48232-5172
Toll free: 1-800-762-2737 (800-PM-CARES)
Toll free: 1-800-762-3743 (1-800-ROADSIDE)
TTY: 1-800-833-9935 (Toll free)
Porsche Cars North America, Inc.
Customer Commitment
Owner Relations
980 Hammond Dr., Suite 1000
Atlanta, GA 30328
Toll free: 1-800-545-8039
Fax: 770-360-3711
Saab Cars USA, Inc.
Customer Assistance Center
4405-A International Blvd.
Norcross, GA 30093
Toll free: 1-800-955-9007
Saturn Corporation
Saturn Customer Assistance Center
100 Saturn Pkwy.
Toll free: 1-800-553-6000
TTY: 1-800-833-6000 (Toll free)
Fax: 931-486-5059
Subaru of America, Inc.
National Customer Service Center
Subaru Plaza, PO Box 6000
Cherry Hill, NJ 08034
Toll free: 1-800-782-2783
Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.
Customer Assistance Center
Department H200
19001 S. Western Ave.
Torrance, CA 90509
Toll free: 1-800-331-4331
TTY: 1-800-443-4999 (Toll free)
Fax: 310-468-7800
Volkswagen of America
Customer Relations
Hills Corporate Center
3499 West Hamlin Rd.
Rochester Hills, MI 48309
Toll free: 1-800-822-8987
Fax: 248-340-4660
Volvo Cars of North America Corporate Office
Customer Service
7 Volvo Dr., Bldg. A
Rockleigh, NJ 07647-0915
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An automobile or motor car is a wheeled motor vehicle for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods. However, the term is far from precise because there are many types of vehicles that do similar tasks.
Automobile comes via the French language, from the Greek language by combining auto [self] with mobilis [moving]; meaning a vehicle that moves itself, rather than being pulled or pushed by a separate animal or another vehicle. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum [wheeled vehicle], or the Middle English word carre [cart] (from Old North French), and karros; a Gallic wagon.
As of 2002, there were 590 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car per eleven people).



Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769 by adapting an existing horse-drawn vehicle, this claim is disputed by some, who doubt Cugnot's three-wheeler ever ran or was stable. Others claim Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small scale and designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first working steam-powered vehicle ('auto-mobile'). What is not in doubt is that Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive in 1801, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle although it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and would have been of little practical use. In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings; however, it was not developed further. François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fueled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world's first vehicle, albeit rudimentary, to be powered by such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with others such as Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines. In November 1881 French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile that was powered by electricity. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885 and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie., which was founded in 1883. It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components and including several new technological elements to create a new concept. This is what made it worthy of a patent. He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888. In 1879 Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. His first Motorwagon was built in 1885 and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on January 29, 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, 1886 and approximately 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called a boxermotor in German. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and because of its size, Benz & Cie., became a joint-stock company. Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company, DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890 and under the brand name, Daimler, sold their first automobile in 1892, which was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer, that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after falling out with their backers. Benz and the Maybach and Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each other's early work. They never worked together because by the time of the merger of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG. Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes, that was placed in a specially-ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Two years later, in 1902, a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers. Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest, valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly—although keeping their respective brands. On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929 and at times, his two sons participated in the management of the company as well. In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France. The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was drawn in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York, who applied for a patent for an automobile in 1879, but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built and proved to work (a requirement for a patent). After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application, on November 5, 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent (U.S. Patent 549,160 ) for a two-stroke automobile engine, which hindered, more than encouraged, development of automobiles in the United States. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911. In Britain there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860. Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894 followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895 but these were both one-offs. The first production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Motor Company, a company founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896 after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. Lawson's company made its first automobiles in 1897 and they bore the name Daimler. In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine". In 1897 he built the first Diesel Engine.[8] Steam-, electric-, and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s. Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success. Production The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in 1902. This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1914. As a result, Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing production by seven to one (requiring 12.5 man-hours before, 1 hour 33 minutes after), while using less manpower. It was so successful, paint became a bottleneck. Only Japan black would dry fast enough, forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1914, until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark, "any color as long as it's black". In 1914, an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay. Ford's complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States. The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods. In the automotive industry, its success was dominating, and quickly spread worldwide seeing the founding of Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911, Ford Denmark 1923, Ford Germany 1925; in 1921, Citroen was the first native European manufacturer to adopt the production method. Soon, companies had to have assembly lines, or risk going broke; by 1930, 250 companies which did not, had disappeared. Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910-1911), independent suspension, and four-wheel brakes. Since the 1920s, nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs, so marketing plans often have heavily influenced automobile design. It was Alfred P. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company, so buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved. Reflecting the rapid pace of change, makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. For example, in the 1930s, LaSalles, sold by Cadillac, used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile; in the 1950s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and windows with Pontiac; by the 1990s, corporate drivetrains and shared platforms (with interchangeable brakes, suspension, and other parts) were common. Even so, only major makers could afford high costs, and even companies with decades of production, such as Apperson, Cole, Dorris, Haynes, or Premier, could not manage: of some two hundred American car makers in existence in 1920, only 43 survived in 1930, and with the Great Depression, by 1940, only 17 of those were left. In Europe much the same would happen. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in 1924, and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford's practise of vertical integration, buying Hotchkiss (engines), Wrigley (gearboxes), and Osberton (radiators), for instance, as well as competitors, such as Wolseley: in 1925, Morris had 41% of total British car production. Most British small-car assemblers, from Abbey to Xtra had gone under. Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in 1919; between them and other cheap cars in reply such as Renault's 10CV and Peugeot's 5CV, they produced 550,000 cars in 1925, and Mors, Hurtu, and others could not compete. Germany's first mass-manufactured car, the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog), came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924, soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany, with 37.5% of the market. Fuel and propulsion technologies Most automobiles in use today are propelled by gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel internal combustion engines, which are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. Increasing costs of oil-based fuels, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles, and electric and hydrogen vehicles which do not release pollution into the air. Petroleum fuels Diesel Diesel-engined cars have long been popular in Europe with the first models being introduced in the 1930s by Mercedes Benz and Citroen. The main benefit of diesel engines is a 50% fuel burn efficiency compared with 27% in the best gasoline engines. A down-side of the diesel is the presence in the exhaust gases of fine soot particulates and manufacturers are now starting to fit filters to remove these. Many diesel-powered cars can also run with little or no modifications on 100% biodiesel. Gasoline Gasoline engines have the advantage over diesel in being lighter and able to work at higher rotational speeds and they are the usual choice for fitting in high-performance sports cars. Continuous development of gasoline engines for over a hundred years has produced improvements in efficiency and reduced pollution. The carburetor was used on nearly all road car engines until the 1980s but it was long realised better control of the fuel/air mixture could be achieved with fuel injection. Indirect fuel injection was first used in aircraft engines from 1909, in racing car engines from the 1930s, and road cars from the late 1950s. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is now starting to appear in production vehicles such as the 2007 (Mark II) BMW Mini. Exhaust gases are also cleaned up by fitting a catalytic converter into the exhaust system. Clean air legislation in many of the car industries most important markets has made both catalysts and fuel injection virtually universal fittings. Most modern gasoline engines also are capable of running with up to 15% ethanol mixed into the gasoline - older vehicles may have seals and hoses that can be harmed by ethanol. With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85%. 100% ethanol is used in some parts of the world (such as Brazil), but vehicles must be started on pure gasoline and switched over to ethanol once the engine is running. Most gasoline engined cars can also run on LPG with the addition of an LPG tank for fuel storage and carburetion modifications to add an LPG mixer. LPG produces fewer toxic emissions and is a popular fuel for fork lift trucks that have to operate inside buildings. Biofuels Ethanol, other alcohol fuels (biobutanol) and biogasoline have widespread use an automotive fuel. Most alcohols have less energy per liter than gasoline and are usually blended with gasoline. Alcohols are used for a variety of reasons - to increase octane, to improve emissions, and as an alternative to petroleum based fuel, since they can be made from agricultural crops. Brazil's ethanol program provides about 20% of the nation's automotive fuel needs, as a result of the mandatory use of E25 blend of gasoline throughout the country, 3 million cars that operate on pure ethanol, and 6 million dual or flexible-fuel vehicles sold since 2003. that run on any mix of ethanol and gasoline. The commercial success of "flex" vehicles, as they are popularly known, have allowed sugarcane based ethanol fuel to achieve a 50% market share of the gasoline market by April 2008. Electric The first electric cars were built around 1832, well before internal combustion powered cars appeared. For a period of time electrics were considered superior due to the silent nature of electric motors compared to the very loud noise of the gasoline engine. This advantage was removed with Hiram Percy Maxim's invention of the muffler in 1897. Thereafter internal combustion powered cars had two critical advantages: 1) long range and 2) high specific energy (far lower weight of petrol fuel versus weight of batteries). The building of battery electric vehicles that could rival internal combustion models had to wait for the introduction of modern semiconductor controls and improved batteries. Because they can deliver a high torque at low revolutions electric cars do not require such a complex drive train and transmission as internal combustion powered cars. Some post-2000 electric car designs such as the Venturi Fétish are able to accelerate from 0-60 mph (96 km/h) in 4.0 seconds with a top speed around 130 mph (210 km/h). Others have a range of 250 miles (400 km) on the EPA highway cycle requiring 3-1/2 hours to completely charge. Equivalent fuel efficiency to internal combustion is not well defined but some press reports give it at around 135 miles per US gallon (57 km/l/162 mpg-imp). Steam Steam power, usually using an oil- or gas-heated boiler, was also in use until the 1930s but had the major disadvantage of being unable to power the car until boiler pressure was available (although the newer models could achieve this in well under a minute). It has the advantage of being able to produce very low emissions as the combustion process can be carefully controlled. Its disadvantages include poor heat efficiency and extensive requirements for electric auxiliaries. Air A compressed air car is an alternative fuel car that uses a motor powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or by air combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline/diesel/ethanol or electric plant and regenerative braking. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it to drive pistons with hot expanding gases; compressed air cars use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons. Several prototypes are available already and scheduled for worldwide sale by the end of 2008. Companies releasing this type of car include Tata Motors and Motor Development International (MDI). Gas turbine In the 1950s there was a brief interest in using gas turbine engines and several makers including Rover and Chrysler produced prototypes. In spite of the power units being very compact, high fuel consumption, severe delay in throttle response, and lack of engine braking meant no cars reached production. Rotary (Wankel) engines Rotary Wankel engines were introduced into road cars by NSU with the Ro 80 and later were seen in the Citroën GS Birotor and several Mazda models. In spite of their impressive smoothness, poor reliability and fuel economy led to them largely disappearing. Mazda, beginning with the R100 then RX-2, has continued research on these engines, overcoming most of the earlier problems with the RX-7 and RX-8. Rocket and jet cars A rocket car holds the record in drag racing. However, the fastest of those cars are used to set the Land Speed Record, and are propelled by propulsive jets emitted from rocket, turbojet, or more recently and most successfully turbofan engines. The ThrustSSC car using two Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans with reheat was able to exceed the speed of sound at ground level in 1997. Safety ________________________________________ There are three main statistics to which automobile safety can be compared: Deaths per billion journeys Bus: 4.3 Rail: 20 Van: 20 Car: 40 Foot: 40 Water: 90 Air: 117 Bicycle: 170 Motorcycle: 1640 Deaths per billion hours Bus: 11.1 Rail: 30 Air: 30.8 Water: 50 Van: 60 Car: 130 Foot: 220 Bicycle: 550 Motorcycle: 4840 Deaths per billion kilometres Air: 0.05 Bus: 0.4 Rail: 0.6 Van: 1.2 Water: 2.6 Car: 3.1 Bicycle: 44.6 Foot: 54.2 Motorcycle: 108.9 While road traffic injuries represent the leading cause in worldwide injury-related deaths, their popularity undermines this statistic. Mary Ward became one of the first documented automobile fatalities in 1869 in Parsonstown, Ireland and Henry Bliss one of the United State's first pedestrian automobile casualties in 1899 in New York. There are now standard tests for safety in new automobiles, like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests, as well as insurance-backed IIHS tests.

Economics and impacts
Cost and benefits of usage
The costs of automobile usage, which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle, repairs, maintenance, fuel, depreciation, parking fees, tire replacement, taxes and insurance, are weighed against the cost of the alternatives, and the value of the benefits - perceived and real - of vehicle usage. The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence and convenience.
Cost and benefits to society
Similarly the costs to society of encompassing automobile use, which may include those of: maintaining roads, land use, pollution, public health, health care, and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life, can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that automobile use generates. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits, such as job and wealth creation, of automobile production and maintenance, transportation provision, society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of societies.
Impacts on society and environment
Transportation is a major contributor to air pollution in most industrialised nations. According to the American Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathing unhealthy air. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has got worse over the last decade. In the United States the average passenger car emits 11,450 lbs (5 tonnes) of carbon dioxide, along with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen. Residents of low-density, residential-only sprawling communities are also more likely to die in car collisions, which kill 1.2 million people worldwide each year, and injure about forty times this number. Sprawl is more broadly a factor in inactivity and obesity, which in turn can lead to increased risk of a variety of diseases.
Improving the positive and reducing the negative impacts
Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient, hence less polluting, car designs (e.g. hybrid vehicles) and the development of alternative fuels. High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, or to not drive. On average, today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable, and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution. In the United States Congress, federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debated regularly, passenger car standards have not risen above the 27.5 miles per US gallon (11.7 km/l/33.0 mpg imp) standard set in 1985. Light truck standards have changed more frequently, and were set at 22.2 miles per US gallon (9.4 km/l/26.7 mpg imp) in 2007. Alternative fuel vehicles are another option that is less polluting than conventional petroleum powered vehicles.
Future car technologies
Automobile propulsion technology under development include gasoline/electric and plug-in hybrids, battery electric vehicles, hydrogen cars, biofuels, and various alternative fuels.
Research into future alternative forms of power include the development of fuel cells, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), stirling engines, and even using the stored energy of compressed air or liquid nitrogen.
New materials which may replace steel car bodies include duraluminum, fiberglass, carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes.
Telematics technology is allowing more and more people to share cars, on a pay-as-you-go basis, through such schemes as City Car Club in the UK, Mobility in mainland Europe, and Zipcar in the US.
Alternatives to the automobile
Established alternatives for some aspects of automobile use include public transit (buses, trolleybuses, trains, subways, monorails, tramways), cycling, walking, rollerblading, skateboarding, horseback riding and using a velomobile. Car-share arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular–the U.S. market leader in car-sharing has experienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006 and 2007, offering a service that enables urban residents to "share" a vehicle rather than own a car in already congested neighborhoods. Bike-share systems have been tried in some European cities, including Copenhagen and Amsterdam. Similar programs have been experimented with in a number of U.S. Cities. Additional individual modes of transport, such as personal rapid transit could serve as an alternative to automobiles if they prove to be socially accepted.
Auto mechanic
An auto mechanic (or car mechanic in British English and motor mechanic in Australian English) is a mechanic who specializes in automobile maintenance, repair, and sometimes modification. A mechanic may be knowledgeable in working on all parts of a variety of car makes or may specialize either in a specific area or in a specific make of car. In repairing cars, their main role is to diagnose the problem accurately and quickly. They often have to quote prices for their customers before commencing work or after partial disassembly for inspection. The mechanic uses both electronic means of gathering data as well as their senses. Their job may involve the repair of a specific part or the replacement of one or more parts as assemblies.
Basic vehicle maintenance is a fundamental part of a mechanic's work in some countries, while in others they are only consulted when a vehicle is already showing signs of malfunction. Preventative maintenance is also a fundamental part of a mechanic's job, but this is not possible in the case of vehicles that are not regularly maintained by a mechanic. One misunderstood aspect of preventative maintenance is scheduled replacement of various parts, which occurs before failure to avoid far more expensive damage. Because this means that parts are replaced before any problem is observed, many vehicle owners will not understand why the expense is necessary.
With the rapid advancement in technology, the mechanic's job has evolved from purely mechanical, to include electronic technology. Because vehicles today possess complex computer and electronic systems, mechanics need to have a broader base of knowledge than in the past. Lately, the term "auto mechanic" is being used less and less frequently and is being replaced by the euphemistic title “automotive service technician”. Fading quickly is the day of the 'shade tree mechanic', who needed little knowledge of today's computerized systems.
Due to the increasingly labyrinthine nature of the technology that is now incorporated into automobiles, most automobile dealerships now provide sophisticated diagnostic computers to each technician, without which they would be unable to diagnose or repair a vehicle.
Automotive industry
The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of motor vehicles. In 2007, more than 73 million motor vehicles, including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide.
In 2007, a total of 71.9 million new automobiles were sold worldwide: 22.9 million in Europe, 21.4 million in Asia-Pacific, 19.4 million in USA and Canada, 4.4 million in Latin America, 2.4 million in the Middle East and 1.4 million in Africa. The markets in North America and Japan were stagnant, while those in South America and Asia grew strongly. Of the major markets, Russia, Brazil and China saw the most rapid growth.
In 2008, with rapidly rising oil prices, industries such as the automotive industry, are experiencing a combination of pricing pressures from raw material costs and changes in consumer buying habits. The industry is also facing increasing external competition from the public transport sector, as consumers re-evaluate their private vehicle usage.

World motor vehicle production

« previous year Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2007


Motor vehicle production (1000 units)









http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan


http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_United_States.pngUnited States


http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.pngPR China



6213 (includes GM Belgium)

http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_South_Korea.pngSouth Korea


























http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.pngCzech Rep.






Reference: "World Motor Vehicle Production by Country: 2006–2007". OICA. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.

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« previous year Top motor vehicle manufacturing companies by volume 2007


Total motor vehicle production (1000 units)















































Tata Motors








Beij ing












Volvo (trucks)


Harbin Hafei










Great Wall








China National










Shannxi Auto






Light Commercial Vehicles

Heavy Commercial VehiclesHeavy Buses

Total global production: 72178476


List of automobiles sales by model
This is a list of automobiles sales by model since the introduction of the Benz Patent Motorwagen in 1886. Wherever possible, references to verify the claims have been included, however even figures given by manufacturers may have a degree of inaccuracy or hyperbole. Also note that a single vehicle can be sold concurrently under several nameplates in different markets, as with for example the Nissan Sunny; in such circumstances manufacturers often provide only cumulative sales figures for all models. As a result, there is no definitive standard for measuring sales.
Vehicles listed in italics are those who achieved their figures through sales of a single generation without any major redesign. The most common distinction is to refer to these specifically as the "bestselling vehicles", as opposed to "bestselling nameplates", where sales have been achieved through perpetuation of the brand name across several unrelated generations of automobiles.

The two vehicles most frequently cited as the bestselling automobiles in the world are the Toyota Corolla and the Volkswagen Beetle.







1974 AMC Gremlin.

AMC Gremlin


671,475 of a single generation.

Second generation Audi A3 with S-Line sports package.

Audi A3


Approximately 1,500,000 in two generations to June 2006.

Image:Autobianchi A112.

Autobianchi A112


1,254,178; also marketed as Lancia A112 in some markets and periods.






E30 BMW 3-Series.

BMW 3 series


Over 9,500,000 in the first four generations to 2005. The bestselling vehicle from a premium brand.

Buick Apollo


23,379 produced.

Buick Centurion convertible.

Buick Centurion


110,809 built.

1977 Buick Electra.

Buick Electra


2,154,856 produced through 1979.

1962 Buick Invicta.

Buick Invicta


186,507 built over two generations.

1984-85 Buick LeSabre.

Buick LeSabre


Over 6,000,000.

Mildly customized 1965 Buick Riviera.

Buick Riviera


1,127,261 built over eight generations.

1965 Buick Wildcat.

Buick Wildcat


492,040 produced over two generations.






First generation Chevrolet Camaro.

Chevrolet Camaro


Almost 4,800,000 in four generations.

1988 Chevrolet Cavalier.

Chevrolet Cavalier


Estimated to be over 6,000,000 in three generations; 5,210,123 were sold up to 1999.

Chevrolet Corvair convertible.

Chevrolet Corvair


1,835,170 in a two generations despite an abrupt end to production.

1958 Chevrolet Corvette.

Chevrolet Corvette


1,302,401 of the first five generations sold to 2003.

1958 Chevrolet Impala.

Chevrolet Impala


Over 13,000,000 between its introduction and 1996; the bestselling full-size car in history, and the bestselling car in America in a single year (more than one million in 1965).

1973 Chevrolet Cosworth Vega.

Chevrolet Vega


2,113,909 as a Vega or Pontiac Astre.

2001 Chrysler Voyager.

Chrysler minivans


Over 11,000,000 across three marques up to 2005; Chrysler (Town and Country, Voyager), Dodge (Caravan) and Plymouth (Voyager).

Citroën 2CV.

Citroën 2CV


3,872,583 in a single design; including commercial variants, the total figure is approximately nine million.

1969 Citroën DS.

Citroën DS


1,455,746; sold 12,000 in a single day upon release at the 1955 Paris Motor Show.






Dodge Aries station wagon.

Dodge Aries/Plymouth Reliant


Known as the 'K-cars' after their common platform; 972,216 in a single generation between the two marques.






Ferrari 360 Spider.

Ferrari 360


Bestselling Ferrari in history; over 17,000 coupés and convertibles.

Fiat 127.

Fiat 127


Fiat's first supermini, 3,730,000, not including sales of licensed or derivative versions by SEAT and Zastava.

1973 Fiat 500 Abarth.

Fiat 500


Known as the Nuova to distinguish it from the earlier Topolino; 3,600,000 in a single design.

1994 Fiat Punto.

Fiat Punto


Over 6,000,000 up to 2005.

Second generation Fiat Uno.

Fiat Uno


Approximately 8,800,000 worldwide to 2004;sold over six million in Europe before being replaced by the Punto in 1995.

1972 Mk.3 Ford Cortina.

Ford Cortina


Over 4,300,000 in five generations.

Ford Crown Victoria.

Ford Crown Victoria

1955–56, 1980–present

Over 5,000,000.

First generation 'flat nosed' Ford Falcon van.

Ford E-Series


Formerly known as the Econoline; over 5,000,000.]

1996 Ford Escort RS2000 2WD.

Ford Escort


Almost 20,000,000 worldwide; Ford's bestselling car nameplate.

First generation Ford Explorer.

Ford Explorer


Over 5,500,000 in four generations.

1955 Ford F-100.

Ford F-Series


America's bestselling vehicle for 23 consecutive years;over 29,000,000 in eleven generations to May 2004.

Ford XB Falcon hardtop.

Ford Falcon


Over 3,000,000 in six generations to 2003, almost exclusively in Australia and New Zealand.

Mk.2 Ford Fiesta.

Ford Fiesta


Over 12,000,000 in six generations

First generation Ford Focus.

Ford Focus


Over 5,000,000 in two generations.

Ford Model A line up at a car show in car show in Huntington Beach, California.

Ford Model A


4,320,446 sales for the successor to the Ford Model T.

1927 Ford Model-T.

Ford Model T


16,500,000; the second bestselling single design, and the first to sell five, ten and fifteen million cars.

1966 Ford Mustang Coupe.

Ford Mustang


Over 8,000,000 in five generations.

First generation Ford Ranger.

Ford Ranger


Over 5,000,000.]

First generation Ford Taurus.

Ford Taurus


Approximately 6,700,000 in four generations.






Hindustan Ambassador.

Hindustan Ambassador


Indian-built version of the Morris Oxford; almost 4,000,000 in a single generation to 2004.

Holden VB Commodore.

Holden Commodore


2,500,000 in the first four generations up to 2008.

First generation Honda Accord.

Honda Accord


Over 8,000,000 of the first six generations up to 2002 in North America, not including global sales elsewhere.

First generation Honda Civic.

Honda Civic


Over 16,500,000 in eight generations.

First generation Honda CR-V.

Honda CR-V


Approximately 2,500,000 to September 2006, claims to be the bestselling "entry level crossover SUV".

2007 Honda Fit Sport.

Honda Fit


Over 1,000,000 in a single generation, including export sales as the Honda Jazz; the bestselling car in Japan, and the first in that country to outsell the Toyota Corolla since 1969.

Honda S500 roadster.

Honda S500


1,363 during eleven months of production.

Honda S600 roadster.

Honda S600


13,084; 11,284 convertibles and 1,800 coupes in three years of production.

Honda S800 roadster.

Honda S800


11,536 from its introduction in 1966 until production ceased in May 1970.

1993 Hyundai Lantra.

Hyundai Elantra


1,000,000 in the first three generations to 2006.






2000 Jeep Cherokee.

Jeep Cherokee (XJ)


2,884,172 in North America until 2001; production continues in China.






Lada Riva 1500.

Lada Riva


13,500,000 until exports to Europe were discontinued in 1997; production continues in both Russia and Egypt.

La Marquise


1. Sold to to a French army officer, Henri Doriol, in 1906.

Lamborghini Gallardo.

Lamborghini Gallardo


Bestselling Lamborghini in history; over 5,000 coupés and convertibles to 2007.

Lamborghini Diablo.

Lamborghini Diablo



Lancia Dedra.

Lancia Dedra


418,084 in a single generation.

1978 Lincoln Town Car.

Lincoln Town Car


One of the bestselling luxury cars in the United States. 944,030 were sold between 1994 and 2005.

Lotus Elise at Snetterton Motor Racing Circuit.

Lotus Elise


Lotus Cars' bestseller; 17,000 in two generations to August 2004.






Maruti 800.

Maruti 800


Rebadged Suzuki Alto, and the bestselling car in India; 2,400,000 of a single generation.

2003 Mazda6 Classic Hatch.

Mazda 6


Mazda's previous fastest seller; 1,000,000 in four years.

Mazda3 hatchback.

Mazda Axela


Mazda's fastest ever seller, 1,000,000 in three years; known as the Mazda 3 in most markets outside Japan.

Mazda 323 Turbo.

Mazda Familia


Also badged as the Protegé and 323; over 10,000,000 in the first eight generations to 1995.

1997 Mazda MPV All-Sport 4WD minivan.

Mazda MPV


1,000,000 in three generations

Mazda Miata convertible.

Mazda MX-5


Also known as the Miata and Eunos Roadster; almost 750,000 in the first two generations to 2005, verified by the Guinness Book of Records as the bestselling two-seater sports car in history.

First generation Mercedes-Benz C-Class.

Mercedes-Benz C-Class


6,900,000 to November 2006

1987 Mercedes-Benz 500 SE.

Mercedes-Benz S-Class


Approximately 4,000,000 of the first five generations to 2006 since the Mercedes-Benz W108; the world's bestselling premium automobile.

Mercedes-Benz 190.

Mercedes-Benz W201


Known as the Mercedes 190; 1,879,629 in a single generation.

Restored 1963 Mk.I Austin Mini Super-Deluxe.



The bestselling British-made car; 5,505,874 in a single design.

2000 Mitsubishi Carisma.

Mitsubishi Carisma


Over 350,000 in nine years.

1985 Mitsubishi Galant 2.0 L turbo.

Mitsubishi Galant


Estimated to be over 5,000,000 in nine generations; up to 1997, 4.9 million were sold.

Mitsubishi Lancer 1600 GSR.

Mitsubishi Lancer


Over 6,000,000 in the first seven generations to the end of 2006.

2006 Mitsubishi L200.

Mitsubishi L200


Over 2,800,000 in the first three generations

Mk.I Mitsubishi Pajero.

Mitsubishi Pajero


Also known as the Montero and Shogun in various export markets; approximately 2,500,000 of the first three generations.

1958 Morris Minor 1000.

Morris Minor


1,368,291 in a single generation of saloons, estates, vans, pickup trucks and convertibles.






Second generation Nissan Maxima.

Nissan Maxima


1,700,000 in the first five generations up to 2001.

1980 Datsun Sunny/140Y.

Nissan Sunny/Sentra/Pulsar/Almera


Over 15,900,000 in ten generations.

1970 Datsun Fairlady Z.

Nissan Z-cars

1969–98, 2003–present

1,535,000 in five generations up to 2005; Japan's bestselling sports car.






1971 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme convertible.

Oldsmobile Cutlass


11,900,000 across several platforms and generations.

Opel Ascona A.

Opel Ascona


4,400,000 in three generations, including the UK-market Vauxhall Cavalier, and the South African-market Chevrolet Ascona.

1997 Opel Astra TD.

Opel Astra


Over 7,000,000 of the first two generations up to 2001, not including Kadett-based Astra in UK from 1984.

1993 Vauxhal Nova.

Opel Corsa


Over 11,000,000 in three generations up to 2002, including "Corsa-based vehicles".

2000 Vauxhall Vectra 1.8.

Opel Vectra


4,500,000 in the first two generations up to 2002, also including UK sales as the Vauxhall Cavalier.





Peugeot 205 Rallye.

Peugeot 205


Over 5,278,000 in a single generation.

Peugeot 206 in Cuba near Banes.

Peugeot 206


Approximately 5,400,000 in a single generation to 2006; PSA Peugeot Citroën's bestselling car.

1978 Peugeot 504 Coupé.

Peugeot 504


More than 3,000,000 built in France, Argentina, China, Kenya and Nigeria.

Dodge Aries station wagon.

Plymouth Reliant


972,216; see Dodge Aries.

1974 Pontiac Firebird Formula 400.

Pontiac Firebird


Approximately 2,500,000 in four generations.

2005 Pontiac Grand Am.

Pontiac Grand Am

1973–75, 1978–80, 1985–2006

Pontiac's bestselling nameplate; over 4,000,000 in five generations.






Renault 4, Croatia.

Renault 4


Over 8,000,000 of a single design.

Renault 4CV.

Renault 4CV


1,105,547 of a single design; the first French car to achieve more than one million sales.

Renault 5.

Renault 5


5,471,709 in two generations.

Mk.3 Renault Clio.

Renault Clio


The bestselling French car; 8,535,280 in the first two generations up to 2005.

Mk.3 Renault Clio.

Renault Twingo


Over 2,400,000 of the monobox city car designed by Patrick le Quément.

1989 MG Metro Turbo.

Rover Metro


First sold as the Austin Mini Metro and later Rover 100; 2,078,718.






1984 Saab 900 Turbo 16 S.

Saab 900


Saab's bestseller; 908,810 in a single generation of sedans, hatchbacks and convertibles.

1973 Simca 1000 GL.

Simca 1000



Simca 1100.

Simca 1100


2,139,400, including a small amount of CKD kits and commercial versions; in later years the vehicle was sold as the Talbot-Simca 1100.

2005 Subaru Legacy 2.5GT.

Subaru Legacy


Over 3,000,000 in four generations to 2005, including Australian sales as the Subaru Liberty.

1998 Suzuki WagonR-Wide.

Suzuki Wagon R


Japan's bestselling kei car; over 2,500,000 in three generations to June 2006.






First generation Toyota Camry.

Toyota Camry


Over 10,000,000 in five generations.

First generation Toyota Corolla.

Toyota Corolla


32,000,000 to September 2006.The first car to achieve thirty million sales. The bestselling automobile in the world, with 1.36 million sales in 2005.

Toyota Land Cruiser at the 2005 IAA.

Toyota Land Cruiser


Over 4,000,000 in five generations.

Toyota Prius.

Toyota Prius


The first and bestselling mass-produced hybrid vehicle; approximately 504,700 worldwide in three generations to April 2006.

The short-lived Trabant 1.1 with VW Polo four-stroke engine.



Over 3,000,000 built by VEB Sachsenring in Zwickau, Saxony until the reunification of Germany led to the closure of the factory.






1967 Vauxhall Viva HB.

Vauxhall Viva


1,501,353 in three generations.

1961 Volkswagen Beetle.

Volkswagen Beetle


21,529,464; the bestselling single design in history, and the first car to reach twenty million sales.

2007 Volkswagen Gol Plus.

Volkswagen Gol


Brazil's bestselling car for 19 consecutive years; over 4,500,000 in four generations.

VW Golf Mk.1.

Volkswagen Golf


Became Volkswagen's bestseller in 2002; over 25,000,000 in five generations up to 2006.

VW Jetta Mk.1 diesel.

Volkswagen Jetta


Sedan version of the Volkswagen Golf; over 6,600,000 in five generations up to August 2005.

VW Passat B1.

Volkswagen Passat


Over 15,000,000 in six generations.

1971 Volvo 142.

Volvo 140


1,252,371 in a single generation.

1971 Volvo 142.

Volvo 164


144,179 in a single generation.

Volvo 240 station wagon.

Volvo 200 series


2,862,573 in a single generation; the bestselling car built in Sweden.

Volvo 340.

Volvo 300 series


1,086,405 in a single generation.

1991 Volvo 744ti SE.

Volvo 700 series


1,239,222 in a single generation.

1994 Volvo 850 Turbo.

Volvo 850


716,903 in a single generation.

1965 Volvo 121.

Volvo Amazon


655,241 in a single generation.

Volvo PV444.

Volvo PV444/544


444,000 in a single generation.

Volvo 211.

Volvo Duett


101,492 in a single generation.

Volvo P1800.

Volvo P1800



Volvo S40.

Volvo S40/V40


1,000,034 in a single generation.

Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)
The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by the latest production figures from OICA 2007 for the parent group, and then by marque.


Country of origin



1. Toyota Motor Corporation (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan)


Flag of Japan


Global, except North America


Flag of Japan


Asia Pacific, Canada, South America


Flag of Japan


Global, apart from South America with the exception of Chile and Argentina.


Flag of Japan


United States


Flag of Japan



2. General Motors Corporation (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_United_States.png United States)


Flag of the United States


North America, China


Flag of the United States




Flag of the United States




Flag of South Korea


Asia, Europe, South America


Flag of the United States


North America, Middle East


Flag of Australia


Australia, New Zealand, Middle East


Flag of the United States




Flag of the United States


North America


Flag of Germany


Continental Europe, South Africa, apart from Asia, with the exception of Japan

Saab (cars)

Flag of Sweden




Flag of the United States


North America, Japan, Republic of China


Flag of the United Kingdom


United Kingdom

3. Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen AG) (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Germany.png Germany)


Flag of Germany




Flag of the United Kingdom




Flag of France




Flag of Italy




Flag of Sweden




Flag of Spain


Europe, Latin America, South Africa


Flag of the Czech Republic


Global, except North America


Flag of Germany



4. Ford Motor Company (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_United_States.png United States)


Flag of the United States




Flag of the United States


North America, Middle East


Flag of the United States


North America, Middle East


Flag of Brazil


South America


Flag of Sweden



5. Honda Motor Company (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan)


Flag of Japan


North America, China


Flag of Japan



6. PSA Peugeot Citroën (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_France.png France)

Global, except North America

Global, except United States and Canada

7. Nissan Motors (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan)

North America, Middle East, Taiwan, Korea


8. Fiat S.p.A. (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Italy.png Italy)

Global, except United States and Canada

Global, Canada (the 8C is sold in the USA)


Global, except United States and Canada

Global, except North America

Global, except North America


9. Renault S.A. (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_France.png France)

Europe, Latin America, Asia, Africa

Global, except United States and Canada

Asia, South America

10. Hyundai Motor Company (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_South_Korea.png South Korea)


11. Suzuki Motor Corporation (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan)

India, Middle East, South America


12. Chrysler LLC (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_United_States.png United States)




13. Daimler AG (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Germany.png Germany)

North America, South Africa




Western Europe, Southeast Asia, North America, South Africa

14. BMW AG (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Germany.png Germany)




15. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan)


16. Kia Motors (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_South_Korea.png South Korea)


17. Mazda Motor Corporation (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan)


18. AvtoVAZ (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Russia.png Russia)

Russia, Finland, Sweden

Russia, Eastern Europe

19. First Automobile Works (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)





20. Tata Motors Limited (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_India.png India)




India, South Africa

South Korea

21. Fuji Heavy Industries (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan)


22. Chang'an Motors (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)

China, South Africa

23. Isuzu Motors (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Japan.png Japan)


24. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)


25. Dongfeng Motor Corporation (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)


26. Chery Automobile (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)

China, South Africa, Southeast Asia except Thailand

27. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)



South Korea, South Africa

28. Brilliance China Automotive Holdings (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)



29. GAZ (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Russia.png Russia)




30. Volvo Group (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Sweden.png Sweden)





31. Harbin Hafei Automobile Industry Group (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)


Flag of the People's Republic of China



32. Geely Automobile (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)


Flag of the People's Republic of China




Flag of the People's Republic of China



33. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)


Flag of the People's Republic of China



34. Mahindra & Mahindra Limited (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_India.png India)


Flag of India



35. Paccar Inc (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_United_States.png United States)


Flag of the Netherlands


Global except United States and Canada


Flag of the United States


North America


Flag of the United Kingdom




Flag of the United States


North America

36. Great Wall Motor (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)

Great Wall

Flag of the People's Republic of China



37. Jiangxi Changhe (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)


Flag of the People's Republic of China



38. Porsche (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_Germany.png Germany)


Flag of Germany



39. BYD Auto (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)


Flag of the People's Republic of China



40. China National Heavy Duty Truck Group (http://www.autorepairservicemissionviejotoyotahondalexusnissaninfiniti.com/index_files/22px-Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China.png People's Republic of China)


Flag of the People's Republic of China



Note 1: The OICA statistics rank the Toyota subsidiary companies Daihatsu and Hino separately; in this table they are included with Toyota.
Note 2: Ford and Renault own the rights to the Volvo and Renault marques for cars only; Volvo Group owns the rights to both marques for trucks
Company relationships
It is not uncommon for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.
Notable current relationships include:

* Porsche holds a 42.6% stake in the Volkswagen Group
* The Renault-Nissan alliance involves two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares.
* Ford holds a 33.9% stake in Mazda. and an 8.3% share in Aston Martin.
* Hyundai Motor Co. holds a 38.67% stake in Kia Motors.
* Daimler AG holds a 19.9% stake in Chrysler Holding LLC.
* General Motors still holds a 3% stake in Suzuki. Suzuki is also partner with GM in GMDAT and CAMI.
* The Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights).
* Renault holds 20.5% of the voting stakes in Volvo Group.
* Toyota holds a 51% stake in Daihatsu hence having a controlling interest in the company, and 16.5% in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru.








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Rancho Santa Margarita,

Lake Forest, Laguna Woods, Laguna Hills, Aliso Viejo, Irvine, Foothill Ranch, Portola Hills, Trabucco Canyon, Aliso Viejo, Laguna Niguel, Laguna Beach, San Juan Capistrano, Tustin, Coto De Caza, Dove Canyon, El Toro, Ladera Ranch, Talega, San Clemente, Newport Beach, Newport Cost, Costa Mesa, Santa Ana, Anaheim, Anaheim Hills, Villa Park, Orange, Orange Heights, Lemon Heights, Northwood, Woodbridge, Monarch Beach, Nellie Gail, Crystal Cove, UCI, University of California, John Wayne Airport, SNA, JWA, Dana Point and Beyond

AUTO REPAIR MISSION VIEJO,Orange County Car Repair: Aliso Viejo, Irvine, Lake Forest, Rancho Santa Margarita, Lake Forest, Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Laguna Niguel, Trabucco Hills, Foothill Ranch, Laguna Woods, San Juan Capistrano, TOYOTA - HONDA - LEXUS - NISSAN - ACURA - INFINITI - MITSUBISHI - SUBARU - FORD - GMC - GM - VOLKSVAGEN - SUZUKI - KIA - CHEVROLET - CHRYSLER - DODGE - BMW - CADILLAC - MERCURY - BUICK - LINCOLN - SATURN - PONTIAC - OLDSMOBILE - HYUNDAI - MERCEDES - PLYMOUTH, WE DO: Clutches, Brakes, Tune Ups, Transmission, Engines, Oil Changes, Electrical, AC, Steering, Alignment, Suspension, Auto Glass, Carburetor, Fuel Injection, Car Stereo, Alarms,All Makes & Models - Commercial Fleet Programs We Repair Cars, SUVs, Autos, Trucks, Diesels, Vans, RVs, Hybrids, Electric Vehicles, Flex Fuel Cars, AUTO REPAIR, ASE, ASC , Dana Point 92624, 92629, Irvine 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710, Laguna Beach 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656, 92677, 92698, Laguna Hills 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656, Laguna Niguel 92607, 92677, Laguna Woods 92653, 92654, Lake Forest 92609, 92630, Mission Viejo 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694, Newport Beach 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, Rancho Santa Margarita 92688, San Clemente 92672, 92673, 92674, San Juan Capistrano 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694 Ladera Ranch 92694, Coto De Caza 92679 Anaheim Hills 92807, 92808, 92809, 92817 Dove Canyon 92679 Oceanside, CA:92049, 92051, 92052, 92054, 92055, 92056, 92057,